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13 March 1940
War at Sea
German submarine U-44 sunk with all hands after hitting a mine off Terschelling
Treaty of Moscow ends the Winter War between Finland and the Soviet Union
Scouting, Volume 28, Number 3, March 1940
Monthly publication of the Boy Scouts of America, written for Boy Scout leaders, officials, and others interested in the work of the Scouts. It includes articles about events and activities, updates from the national headquarters, topical columns and essays, and news from various chapters nationwide. An index appears on page 34.
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Boy Scouts of America National Scouting Museum
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- Main Title: Scouting, Volume 28, Number 3, March 1940
- Serial Title:Scouting
Monthly publication of the Boy Scouts of America, written for Boy Scout leaders, officials, and others interested in the work of the Scouts. It includes articles about events and activities, updates from the national headquarters, topical columns and essays, and news from various chapters nationwide. An index appears on page 34.
Masthead text: "A Magazine of Ideas and Information for All Scouters."
Folio text: "Published monthly, except August, by the Boy Scouts of America."
The origins of the 13th Armor date back to 2 February 1901, when the regiment was constituted in the Regular Army as the 13th Cavalry. The 13th was later activated on 1 May 1901 at Fort Meade, South Dakota. After briefly serving in the western United States, the 13th conducted two tours in the Philippines, first from 1903 to 1905, then from 1909 to the end of 1910. After returning to the United States from the Philippines, the 13th served along the U.S.-Mexico border from 1911 until 1921. During the early years of the 13th cavalry’s history, the regiment also gained the designation 13th Horse.
Four troops of the regiment and the machine gun platoon were posted at Camp Furlongnear Columbus, New Mexico, when Mexican bandit Pancho Villa and his men raided the town in the early hours of 9 March 1916. While taken by surprise, the 13th Cavalry troopers, under the command of COL Herbert J. Slocum, quickly rallied and drove the attackers back across the border, killing over 100 raiders in the process. Eight soldiers were killed in the attack, along with nine civilians. MAJ Frank Tompkins organized a pursuit force with men from two troops and chased the raiders fifteen miles into Mexican territory until a shortage of ammunition and water forced them to turn back.
President Woodrow Wilson ordered immediate retaliation for Villa’s raid and directed BG John J. “Black Jack” Pershing to lead what became known as the Punitive Expedition. On 16 March, American units, including four cavalry regiments, two infantry regiments, and two batteries of field artillery, crossed into Mexico in an effort to capture Pancho Villa. Leading the expedition across the border was the 13th Cavalry, with MAJ Tompkins on point. During the expedition, troopers from the 13th conducted patrols as far south as San Antonio, Mexico, the southernmost advance by American soldiers during operations south of the border. During the withdrawal from Mexico on 5 February 1917, the 13th Cavalry served as the rear guard of the expeditionary force, making it the first and last American unit in Mexico.
Following the American declaration of war against Germany in April 1917, the 13th Cavalry remained in the United States, serving briefly in Kansas and at a number of posts along the Texas-Mexico border. From 1920 to 1935, the regiment served primarily in Kansas, with its headquarters at Fort Riley. On 1 March 1933, the regiment was assigned to the 2d Cavalry Division it was relieved from the 2d on 18 August 1936. In 1936, the 13th, now under the command of COL Charles I. Scott, became part of the 7th Cavalry Brigade (Mechanized), which served as a pioneer for the Army’s future armored force.
On 15 July 1940, the 13th Cavalry was redesignated the 13th Armored Regiment (Light) and assigned to the newly formed 1st Armored Division at Fort Knox, Kentucky. After taking part in the Arkansas, Louisiana, and Carolina Maneuvers in the summer and fall of 1941, the 13th returned to Fort Knox with the rest of the 1st Armored Division in December 1941. On 7 December, the regiment was redesignated the 13th Armored Regiment.
After additional training at Fort Knox, the 13th Armored, under the command of COL Paul Robinett, moved with the rest of the 1st Armored Division for Fort Dix, New Jersey, arriving on 10 April 1942. The 13th staged at Fort Dix until it left for Europe from the Portof New York on 13 May 1942. The regiment arrived in Northern Ireland on 11 June 1942 and underwent additional training in its M3 Stuart light and M3 Grant medium tanks.
On 8 November 1942, the 1st Battalion and 2d Battalions, 13th Armored, serving with the 1st Armored Division’s Combat Command B (CCB), took part in Operation Torch, the Allied landings in North Africa. CCB, part of Center Task Force’s Task Force Green, came ashore west of Oran, Algeria, against light resistance from Vichy French forces and entered the city two days later. The remainder of the 13th did not arrive in North Africa until 21 December.
Following the Algeria-French Morocco campaign, the 13th Armored, now under the command of COL Clarence C. Benson, advanced east into Tunisia, where it met German forces for the first time. While the Allies ultimately defeated the Axis forces, who surrendered in Tunisia on 13 May 1943, the 13th Armored suffered heavy losses during engagements at Sbeitla, Kasserine Pass, and other locations as the regiment’s light and medium tanks (including improved M5 Stuart light tanks newly arrived M4 Sherman mediums) were inferior to the more heavily armed and armored German Mk IV and Mk VI tanks.
After a period of rest, refitting, and training in North Africa, elements of the 13th Armored landed at Salerno, Italy, on 9 September 1943, with the rest of the regiment arriving in late October. When the Fifth Army’s drive north to Rome stalled in the late autumn and winter of 1943, LTG Mark Clark ordered VI Corps to conduct amphibious landings at Anzio in January 1944 in order to bypass the German Gustav Line. CCA of the 1st Armored Division took part in the initial landings CCB, which included the 13th Armored, remained with II Corps and the fighting around Cassino.
The 13th Armored was later sent to Anzio in May 1944 to take part in the Allied breakout of the beachhead beginning on 23 May. During heavy fighting, the regiment suffered significant losses in tanks from to both enemy mines and guns. Soon after the breakout, however, Allied forces quickly advanced on Rome. Companies A and H of the 13th Armored were among the first Allied units to enter Rome when it fell on 4 June. After the fall of Rome, the 13th Armored continued to attack north with the 1st Armored Division until reaching Lake Bracciano.
In July 1944, the 1st Armored Division went into Fifth Army Reserve and underwent an extensive reorganization. As a result, the 13th Armored Regiment was broken up on 20 July, with the regiment’s Headquarters Company, Service Company, and Companies D, E, F redesignated as the 13th Tank Battalion 3d Battalion and Maintenance Company as the 4th Tank Battalion and the 13th’s Reconnaissance Company as Troop D, 81st Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron, Mechanized. The remaining units of the regiment’s units were disbanded.
While the Allies’ attention shifted to Western Europe with the invasion of Normandy on 6 June 1944, the war continued on in Italy, as Allied forces advanced north against strong German resistance. The German defenders skillfully used the rugged Italian mountains to their advantage. Furthermore, the Italian topography, combined with the poor road network, hampered the effective use of armor and never allowed the Allies to fully exploit their advantage in mobility. Nevertheless, the units of the former 13th Armored Regiment slowly pushed their way north, seizing one enemy held position after another. By the time German forces surrendered in Italy on 2 May 1945, the 13th Tank Battalion had nearly reached the Swiss border. During World War II, the 4th and 13th Tank Battalions and Troop D, 81st Reconnaissance Squadron, participated in seven campaigns: Algeria-French Morocco (with arrowhead), Tunisia, Naples-Foggia, Anzio, Rome-Arno, North Apennines, and Po Valley.
After World War II, the 4th and 13th Tank Battalions were converted to the 72d and 13th Constabulary Squadrons, respectively, on 1 May 1946, while Troop D, 81st Reconnaissance Squadron, became the 81st Constabulary Squadron on the same date. After serving as occupation forces in Germany, all three units were inactivated on 20 September 1947.
After several periods of activation, reorganization, and inactivation in the 1950s, the units of the former 13th Armored were consolidated, reorganized, and redesignated as the 13th Cavalry, a parent regiment under Combat Arms Regimental System. On 3 February 1962, the 13th Cavalry was redesignated the 13th Armor, with the 1st and 2d Battalions, 13th Armor, assigned to the 1st Armored Division at Fort Hood, Texas.
In 1971, the 1st and 2d Battalions, 13th Armor, were relieved from the 1st Armored Division and assigned to the 1st Cavalry Division, which had recently returned from Vietnam to Fort Hood and had been reorganized from air assault to heavy armor. On 24 April 1973, the 2d Battalion, 13th Armor, was inactivated. In June 1974, the 1st Battalion was relieved from the 1st Cavalry Division and returned to the 1st Armored Division. The 1st Battalion, 13th Armor, served with the 1st Armored Division until 16 April 1988, when it was inactivated and relieved from the 1st Armored. In March 1987, the 2d and 4th Battalions, 13th Armor, were activated and assigned to U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command, where they served as training units at the U.S. Army Armor School and Center at Fort Knox, Kentucky.
Following the inactivation of the 2d and 4th Battalions in early 1996, the 1st Battalion, 13th Armor (1-13 Armor), was activated on 16 February 1996 at Fort Riley, Kansas, and assigned once again to the 1st Armored Division, this time to the division’s 3d Brigade. From January through December 1997, 1-13 Armor served as part of Operation Joint Endeavor in Bosnia. During its time as peacekeepers in the Balkans, Company A, 1-13 Armor, earned an Army Superior Unit Award. The battalion later took part in operations along the Iraq-Kuwait border (Operation Desert Spring) from May to November 2002.
On 23 February 2003, 1-13 Armor received deployment orders to the CENTCOM area of responsibility in support of what would become Operation Iraqi Freedom. 1-13 Armor entered Iraq on 29 April 2003. The battalion was attached to the 3d Infantry Division and assumed control of Kadimiyah area of northwest Baghdad. 1-13 Armor conducted stability and security operations until it was redeployed back to Fort Riley on 2 April 2004.
Currently, 1-13 Armor is scheduled to participate in a transition team function as part of the Army’s transformation to a modular force. Plans call for the 13th Armor to convert back to 13th Cavalry, with two squadrons (1st and 2d) slated to serve as reconnaissance squadrons in the 1st Armored Division.
Statement by the President of the United States (Roosevelt) at the End of Hostilities, March 13, 1940
The President also asserted that news of the Soviet naval and military bombings within Finnish territory had come as a profound shock that to the great misfortune of the world, the present trend to force makes insecure the independent existence of small nations in every continent and jeopardizes the rights of mankind to self-government.
The President now adds to his statement of December 1, 1939, by saying that the people of Finland, by their unexcelled valor and strong resistance in the face of overwhelming armed forces, have won the moral right to live in everlasting peace and independence in the land they have so bravely defended.
The President reiterates that the people and Government of Finland have again increased the respect and warm regard in which they are held by the people and Government of the United States, even though it is clear that by virtue of an attack by a neighbor many times stronger they have been compelled to yield territory and to accept a material weakening of their own future defense of their independenee.
The ending of this war does not yet clarify the inherent right of small nations to the maintenance of their integrity against attack by superior force. Published in the book: Documents on American Foreign Relations, July 1939-June 1940 , Vol. II. World Peace Foundation, Boston, 1940. President Roosevelt's history page.
Today in World War II History—March 13, 1940 & 1945
80 Years Ago—March 13, 1940: Canada forms Inventions Board to process weapon suggestions from civilians.
Canada discontinues manufacture of civilian trucks.
Punjabi nationalist Udham Singh assassinates former British governor Sir Michael O’Dwyer in London, in retaliation for 1919 Amritsar massacre.
75 Years Ago—Mar. 13, 1945: US B-29s launch fire raid on Osaka, killing 4000 and destroying 119 factories.
51 st Field Hospital crosses the Rhine River at Remagen, Germany, the first US hospital to do so.
King Norodom Sihanouk declares Cambodian independence from France (under Japanese), changes name of country to Kampuchea, reinstates Khmer script, ending Romanization of Khmer language.
World War 2 in Hammelburg
Stalag 13 is Born
Gates of Stalag 13, 1945
In the summer of 1940, the southern end of the camp was prepared for prisoners of war from the enlisted ranks.
The camp was called Stammlager XIII C, or Stalag XIII C for short, and wooden barracks were built to house POWs of a variety of nationalities.
Australian POW's at Stalag 13
The third man from the right, bottom row, is Arthur Hunt, father-in-law of the contributor of the photo. Below is the reverse side of the photo, with the official Stalag XIII C stamp.
Other side of the photo
Here's an interesting article about an Australian POW and undercover work ਊt Stalag 13.
After the Battle of the Bulge in December 1944, several hundred captured American officers were sent to Oflag 13B. More Americans started arriving from camps in the east as the Russian army advanced.
The Lager held over 30,000 POW's, with the Russians as the largest group. As required by the Geneva Convention, different nationalities were housed separately.
Junior enlisted prisoners, corporal and below, were required to work. These POW's were assigned to work units in neighboring factories, farms and forests. They lived outside the camp and were guarded by a battalion of Home Guards (Landschützen).
The real Kommandants of Stalag 13ꂾtween 1940 and 1945 were Lieutenant Colonel von Crailsheim, Colonel Franck and Colonel Westmann.
March 11th, 1940 is a Monday. It is the 71st day of the year, and in the 11th week of the year (assuming each week starts on a Monday), or the 1st quarter of the year. There are 31 days in this month. 1940 is a leap year, so there are 366 days in this year. The short form for this date used in the United States is 3/11/1940, and almost everywhere else in the world it's 11/3/1940.
This site provides an online date calculator to help you find the difference in the number of days between any two calendar dates. Simply enter the start and end date to calculate the duration of any event. You can also use this tool to determine how many days have passed since your birthday, or measure the amount of time until your baby's due date. The calculations use the Gregorian calendar, which was created in 1582 and later adopted in 1752 by Britain and the eastern part of what is now the United States. For best results, use dates after 1752 or verify any data if you are doing genealogy research. Historical calendars have many variations, including the ancient Roman calendar and the Julian calendar. Leap years are used to match the calendar year with the astronomical year. If you're trying to figure out the date that occurs in X days from today, switch to the Days From Now calculator instead.
On March 13, 1937, the Twin T-Ps (later Power's Pancake House and Twin Teepees) opens at 7201 Aurora Ave. N, near Green Lake. The unusual building features two metal-clad conical pavilions, hence its name, intended to attract the attention of passing motorists, and becomes an instant, if unofficial, landmark. Such structures, now rare in Seattle, are classified as "vernacular architecture" because their idiosyncratic designs usually reflect individual quirks or promotional strategies rather than conventional standards.
The building was designed by Delland Harris and housed the main dining room was housed in the southern "teepee." A pre-opening article in The Seattle Times described its dining room as featuring "a huge open-pit fireplace, covered with seashells" in a decor inspired by American Indian designs. The northern pavilion contained the kitchen and a cocktail lounge. Restrooms were located on the upper floor of a lobby structure bridging the two teepees.
Twin Teepees' fare consisted of standard American dishes. Prime rib became a popular Friday night specialty in the 1980s and 1990s.
A Colonel in the Kitchen
The Twin T-Ps was first operated by Herman E. Olson. It passed through several hands before being acquired in 1942 by Walter Clark (d. 1990), who went on to build a regional chain of 22 restaurants. Clark employed a former war buddy, Col. Harland Sanders, who worked on his famous "Kentucky fried chicken" recipe in the Teepee's kitchen before establishing his own fast food empire (Tippetts).
The restaurant operated as "Powers Pancake House" between 1959 and 1967. Its original name was restored, although spelled out as "Teepees" in 1976. The restaurant suffered a fire on July 31, 1997, and a more serious blaze on June 1, 2000, closed its doors.
On July 31, 2001, early in the morning, the restaurant was bulldozed to the ground, despite its place in Seattle's history and despite the fact that it would have undoubtedly been protected under historic preservation. Landlord Rob Pierides explained that it was too complex and expensive to repair.
Twin T-Ps restaurant (Dell W. Harris, 1936), ca. 1937
Twin T-Ps advertisement, 1940s
Power's Pancake Palace (former Twin T-Ps), ca. 1965
Twin Teepees Restaurant (Dell W. Harris, 1936), 1997
Andrea Otanez, "Another Roadside Subtraction," The Seattle Times, December 13, 2000, p. B-1 The Seattle Times, March 12, 1937, August 1, 1997 Ibid., April 22, 1999 Ibid., August 11, 2000 P. E. Tibbetts (assisted by Dorothy K. Bestor and Mary Clark Crabtree), Mr. Restaurant (Seattle: Murray Publishing, 1990).
At 1:20 p.m. on Friday, March 13, 1987, a B-52 Stratofortress and a KC-135 Stratotanker took off from Fairchild Air Force Base (AFB) to practice aerial maneuvers for a 15-minute air show scheduled on Sunday, May 17, Fairchild's annual Aerospace Day. The show was to be the debut of a new aerobatics team dubbed the Thunderhawks, the brainchild of General John T. Chain Jr., commander-in-chief of the Strategic Air Command (SAC). Its purpose was to demonstrate the capabilities of SAC’s large aircraft through a series exciting routines that included a low-level refueling simulation, high-bank turns, and flybys down the runway. Colonel Thomas J. Harris, commander of the 92nd Bombardment Wing at Fairchild AFB had been assigned the responsibility for the Thunderhawks’ creation and development in December 1986.
The KC-135A-BN Stratotanker, No. 60-0361, had three instructor pilots aboard the aircraft: Lieutenant Colonel Michael W. Cornett, Captain Christopher Chapman, and Captain Frank B. Johnson. But no one on the ground at Fairchild knew who was actually in command of the aircraft when it took off. Also on board plane were two navigators, Captain James W. Litzinger and First Lieutenant Mark L. Meyers, and refueling-boom operator, Staff Sergeant Rodney S. Erks.
The KC-135 had just taken off from runway 23, in tandem with the B-52, and was executing a steep left-hand turn when it suddenly rolled from an intended 45-degree bank to almost 90 degrees, stalling the two engines on the left wing. The crew managed to level the aircraft, but it was flying too low and slow to recover. The plane crashed landed in an open area north of the flightline, behind three large hangars, narrowly missing the base’s bombing and refueling squadron offices. It skidded through a security fence, across an access road, and killed Senior Master Sergeant Paul W. Hamilton, a member of the Thunderhawks on his day-off from flying, who was sitting in his car watching. The aircraft traveled for another 200 yards, then hit an unmanned weather radar tower and burst into flames. During the journey, the tail section separated from the fuselage as well as the wings, engines, and wheels. One wing, ripped off by the collision with the radar tower, landed 50 yards beyond the burning wreckage.
Within minutes, Fairchild’s crash teams were on scene, fighting the fire caused by spilled jet fuel. Spokane International Airport, four miles east of the base, dispatched a crash truck and the Spokane Fire Department mobilized an entire engine company to assist in battling the blaze. Because of the toxic fumes and dangerous flare-ups, reporters and photographers were not permitted near the scene. It took firefighters more than three hours to extinguish the flames and hot-spots from the crash. Searchers found the bodies of five crewmen in the forward section of the blackened fuselage. The body of the sixth crew member was finally found late Friday night, tangled inside the cockpit wreckage. It wasn’t discovered immediately because the recovery teams were being careful to safeguard the crew compartment for the Air Force accident investigators.
Mourning and Investigating
On Saturday, March 14, Colonel James L Holmes Jr., vice-wing commander, 6th Strategic Wing, Eielson AFB, Alaska, convened a 13-member investigations board at Fairchild and began a formal inquiry into the cause of the accident. The board included nine Air Force officers, two enlisted men, and one civilian from other SAC bases. A large portion of their day was spent touring the crash site, still reeking of jet fuel, where twisted wreckage had been strewn over hundreds of square yards. The investigation included autopsies on the bodies of the airmen to screen for possible drug or alcohol use.
At 10:00 a.m. on Tuesday, March 17, 1987, a memorial service was held at Fairchild AFB to honor the seven airmen who died in the KC-135 accident. The service, held in the base chapel, was attended by more than 600 people. Those unable to crowd into the chapel watched it on closed circuit television in an adjacent building. Colonel Harris, Fairchild’s commander, delivered the eulogy. The hour-long ceremony was concluded with a bugler playing taps, a 21-gun salute by an Air Force Honor Guard, and a Stratotanker executing a low pass over the chapel.
Questions Are Asked
Meanwhile, U.S. Representative Norman D. Dicks (D-Bremerton), a member of the House Defense Appropriations Subcommittee, was asking pointed questions about the fatal accident. He said he wasn’t aware of the Thunderhawks’ existence, which had been developing routines since early January, until reading a news story about the group shortly before the crash. In Dicks’ view, the Thunderhawks program was directly responsible for causing the unnecessary deaths of seven highly trained and indispensable airmen and the destruction a $19 million-dollar airplane. He wanted Congress to examine whether special aerobatics teams posed unacceptable risks to military fliers and expensive aircraft. U.S. Representative Thomas S. Foley (1929-2013), a Spokane Democrat, joined Dicks in requesting a formal review of the air demonstration programs. (Congress normally doesn’t micromanage military budgets and programs, however, subcommittee oversight sometimes occurs when specific problems arise.)
The Spokesman-Review, a Spokane daily newspaper, polled various military and civilian aviation experts on the capabilities of the KC-135A Stratotanker and published the results. The consensus was that large, heavy aircraft such as the KC-135 should not be used for aerobatics or low-altitude exercises. According to Om Chauhan, Air Force manufacturing supervisor at the Boeing Military Aviation Company in Wichita, Kansas, the tanker was designed for high-speed, high-altitude refueling, not for slow, low-level flying. “Large planes like the KC-135 require more time and thrust to recover from power loss or other problems, and flying close to the ground increases chances of a crash” (Corollo and Wagoner). John Galipault, president of the Aviation Safety Institute, stated: “It absolutely amazes me that they want to demonstrate the capabilities of air-to-air refueling so close to the ground. It’s not in their mission. It's all showing off” (Corollo and Wagoner). And a spokesman for the Air Force Secretary’s office claimed they weren’t aware of the Thunderhawks program until the accident happened.
On Friday, June 12, 1987, the Air Force Accident Investigation Board released an official report concluding the crash of the KC-135, which happened just after takeoff, was caused by wake turbulence from the B-52 with which it was to practice aerial stunts. The tanker was behind and at a slight angle to the bomber’s flight path, overshot its turning point and started a 45-degree roll to the left to get back on course. When the KC-135 inadvertently hit the B-52’s wake, the plane suddenly rolled to nearly 90 degrees and was flying too low and too slow to enable a recovery. According to the flight plan, the KC-135, with refueling boom extended, was to execute a pass at approximately 500 feet, with the B-52 following at 200 feet. During the demonstration, the tanker was never intended to fly lower than 100 feet above the flight path of the bomber.
Aerial Circuses Reconsidered
As a result of the KC-135 crash at Fairchild AFB, the Air Force canceled all scheduled SAC aerial demonstration programs and the Thunderhawks team was officially disbanded. The Air Force Secretary, Edward C. Aldridge Jr. promised Congress it would not to use heavy aircraft, such as bombers and tankers, in risky maneuvers for air shows. The Air Combat Command (ACC) subsequently developed regulations which stated that heavy aircraft perform only straight, level passes over a fixed point during air shows, at minimum altitude of 500 feet above ground level, by no more than four aircraft, and not involving aerobatics. Any deviation from the regulations must be reviewed and authorized by the Air Combat Command.
The military formed “air demonstration teams,” such as the Air Force Thunderbirds and Navy Blue Angels, which fly powerful jet-fighter aircraft to boost recruiting and morale and give the public the opportunity to see the skill and professionalism of the pilots and crews. The programs, however, cost taxpayers millions of dollars annually and have been responsible for numerous fatalities as well as the destruction of expensive aircraft. But the Defense Department values the aerial circuses, as they raise the public's perception of the military, and currently has no plans to change its policy regarding air shows.
July 5th 1918- German spring offensive has total success and the allies are pushed deeper into France.
August 1st 1918- German and Austrian forces launch an offensive to break the allies apart it succeeds and the British consider withdrawing from France.
September 1st 1918- Paris falls after a short siege and after being abandoned by all non-French forces.
November 12th 1918- France surrenders and the Treaty of Chartres is signed with France ceding a large part of its eastern border with Germany to the Germans.
The Belgians are also present and they cede half of their country to the Germans as well and half of Savoy is made into an independent state in the south east.
December 1st 1918- German troops march through Savoy into Italy catching the Italians off guard who are mostly occupied fighting the Austrians in the Alps.
January 5th 1919- Italy signs the Treaty of Ravenna with the Central Powers ceding Eastern Savoy to the new nation of Savoy created as a buffer to weaken both Italy and France.
November 30 1919- The United States and the UK sign a peace treaty with the Central Powers establishing a status quo and ending World War 1.
December 1st 1920- This is a time of unrest among the colonies of the defeated powers and the UK sees rebellion in Ireland and in India while France faces a brutal rebellion in Algeria.
March 5th 1920- A young captain by the name of Joseph Renauld Chastien gains fame as he takes the stronghold of the Algerian rebels while outnumbered three to one. From this point he works his ways through the ranks quickly.
January 1920- These are good times at home for western countries and economies boom.
March 1st 1920- The UK is unable to subdue the Irish rebels outside of the north and allows most of Ireland to have its independence.
March 20th 1920- Being the only central power that had to surrender to the allies, the Ottomans face unrest in Syria and Iraq.
1925- Mussolini, formerly prime minister, becomes the dictator of a new Fascist Italy.
January 5th 1925- With fear of the Syrian rebels spreading to the northern Levant France sends a force to help the Turks.
Now Colonel Chastien once again shows his prowess in defeating large forces and gains more glory.
January 20th 1925- After a long series of wars the newly-established Soviet Union finally smashes the rebels in Ukraine that tried to form a free state after the Russian civil war began.
March 5th 1925- The rebels in India finally surrender and India is retained by the British empire.
October 29 1929- Great depression begins after world stock markets collapse. This begins the de-establishing of many western countries.
January 1st 1930- Due to pressure in Germany caused by the depression the kaiser steps down and allows Germany to become a constitutional monarchy with an elected chancellor being the head of state.
June 5th 1930- Germany and the UK form an economic pact to help recover their economies from the depression.
January 8th 1931- Pressure in France creates riots and masses of bread lines as well as fights between Italian inspired Fascist and Soviet inspired Communist.
April 1st 1931- The military in France faces a dilemma in what to do about the current situation. They end up agreeing with now Lieutenant General Chastien that they will help the needy and execute the Communist demonstrators.
June 5th 1931- The battle of Rouen Normandy happens when French forces under General Chastien fires on the largest Communist group in the country during a riot. The rebels fire back but are destroyed with great losses.
June 20th 1931- Outraged by events in France the British PM announces that they will revoke their alliance with France and gain closer ties to Germany.
July 1931- The French Communist decide to surrender to the government after clashes all over the country.
December 1931- General Joseph Chastien marches into Paris with the army and is declared Consul for life - becoming dictator of a Fascist military controlled France.
February 1932- France and Italy create the Mediterranean defense pact.
March 1932- Slovene nationalist revolt from Austria and control most of the southern part of the country.
June 20th 1932- Austro-Hungary is near collapse and they beg Germany and the UK for help.
Meanwhile, France sends munitions to the rebels to punish the Austrians for helping Germany in the great war.
July 5th 1932- Moldovian and Bessarbian rebels in Eastern Romania defeat the Austrians badly and they decide to let the rebels have their own state of Moldovia.
November 1st 1932- Austro-Hungary ends there civil war by allowing the south to succeed as Yugoslavia.
February 15th 1933- Yugoslavia joins the Mediterranean defence pact with France and Italy.
March 15th 1933- Chastien demands France be allowed to reoccupy Burgundy along the new German border. The allies give in without much concern.
February 1934- France and Italy begin huge military buildups in secret unknown to the UK or Germany.
July 5th 1934- Chastien demands the annexation of Western Savoy whose French patriots have protested for months to be allowed to rejoin France.
The United Nations, seeing that the majority of the targeted country wants reunification, allows it.
October 1934- Eastern Savoy is guaranteed its freedom by the UK and Germany As they realise they must draw a red line somewhere.
17th July 1936- The Spanish civil war begins as Generalissimo Franco invades from Morocco.
25th October 1936- The United Kingdom and Germany decide not to support either faction in Spain but still send small arms to the republican forces.
January 20th 1937- France and Italy send tanks and planes to Generalissimo Franco's force in Spain allowing him to gain a great advantage vs the republicans.
May 5th 1937- A French volunteer battalion equipped with improved Char B 1s with greater fuel efficiency are sent to Spain for battle testing.
September 1937- Polish secessionists in eastern Germany riot and assassinate German regional officials.
French troops invading Germany
December 5th 1937- France and the Soviet Union make a pact to help one another if either country ends up in a war against Germany.
March 8th 1938- Spanish nationalist forces under Franco finally crush the republicans with lots of help from France and Italy.
After the victory Spain joins the Mediterranean Defence pact.
June 8th 1938- Italy invades Eastern Savoy and the UK and Germany declare war on Italy as a result.
Char 1B rolling towards the Rhine
June 10th 1938- After goading the Italians to begin the war the French launch a huge invasion of Germany and quickly reclaim the territories lost in WW1 and push the Germans to the Rhine.
On this day the UK also goes to war with France and the Soviet Union prepares an invasion of Eastern GermanyPoland.
Blue Mediterranean Defense pact vs Red Allies
July 5th 1938- General Chastien convinces the Netherlands that they will receive all of Flemish Belgium as a reward if they support him by declaring war and being a distraction for Germany as French troops prepare to go over the Rhine.
July 15th 1938- French army group B in the center clashes with the central part of the German defending armies and the resulting battle of Andernach and the French won the battle after three days and sustaining twice as many casualties.
August 10th 1938- Italian and Yugoslav troops invade southern Austria meanwhile the Italians fail to invade Egypt which is occupied by the British and they are pushed back to Sidi Birani.
September 1st 1938- Bombing of Munich by the French is the first major city bombing aimed at destroying ordnance rather than at military units. It kills 30,000 civilians.
September 20th 1938- As Spain prepares to send re-inforcements to North Africa and assist the French-Italian force there. They hear that Cuba is having pro-Spanish demonstrations and wanting Cuba back they ship supplies to the rebels.
October 5th 1938- The United Kingdom air raids northern France heavily for the first time in the war. This begins the air battle over the English Channel.
November 3rd 1938- Revolution in Quebec begins as they refuse to take arms against France and Canadian troops prepare to use all means necessary to stop a rebellion.
November 8th 1938- Adolf Hitler unveils his painting of the bombing of Munich and it awes the German chancellor Herman Khun so much that he buys it for 8000 marks in an auction.
December 5th 1938- After crossing the Rhine horrible conditions bog the French down and they fail to take Essen and begin a siege of it and the rest of the major Rhineland cities that are in German control.
January 1st 1939- After receiving sufficient British and Canadian re-inforcements, Allied command unleashes and counterattack against the French and it retakes half of the fallen cities and pushes the French back to the river in some places.
January 20th 1939- The battle of Koln ends the allied winter offensive as the French under Adrian Chastien (the Consul's brother) defeats the Allies giving them heavy losses and the clearing skies allow French air superiority to wreak havoc on the Allies.
February 2nd 1939- Combined Med Defence pact forces push back the British in North Africa to outside Tobruk were they prepare to defend the city.
February 5th 1939- The Ottoman Empire formally joins the war on the French side and they invade British Palestine unsuccessfully.
March 10th 1939- Cuban pro-Spanish rebels succeed in obtaining control of Cuba and the United States mobilizes and tries to find a culprit for who armed the rebels so well.
March 20th 1939- As the final snow of the season melts the French prepare another assault into Germany.
March 25th 1939- Although their peer pact with France required the Soviets to assist them in the war with Germany the Russian invasion of German Poland and the Baltics didn't begin until now and it opens up a second front of the war.
April 15th 1939- Being forced to divert troops to fight the Russians the Germans and allied troops are put in a worse position as the French push towards central Westphalia.
May 5th 1939- With Russian and Turkish assistance the Baltic front of the war starts to collapse for the Allies and Austro-Hungary is overrun and Vienna is encircled while Prague is maintained after a brutal close battle.
June 5th 1939- The fall of Dortmund and the French advance all the way to Bielefield. This campaign is a huge loss to the allies as they suffer three to one losses to the French.
July 1st 1939- Japan joined the war on the allied side and invades French Indochina.
August 10th 1939- The Russian advance is defeated at Königsberg where they suffer a huge defeat that wrecks half of their air power and armor of the northern front.
August 15th 1939- The Germans unveil their new tiger tanks on the eastern and western fronts designed to take out Russian KVs and French Char B series tanks they are a great success but not yet available in large numbers.
August 30th 1939- The French are halted at the battle of Oldenburg were German and Canadian troops Inflict massive losses on them including 80 Renault tanks and 8000 men.
September 1st 1939- The allies in the Battle of Jever on the East Friesian coast defeat the Dutch soundly whose armor consist of mostly outdated French supplies from the pre-war era causing the Dutch to retreat all the way to Wilhelmshaven.
September 10 1939- Cuban nationalists bomb the Florida Keys using Spanish supplied biplanes. After this, the United States votes to declare war on the Spanish and French.
October 30th 1939- Large supplies of American Shermans and Springfield rifles reach the allies in Germany and in North Africa.
November 2nd 1939- American troops under General Bradley invade Spanish Morocco and defeat the Spanish soundly. After this the French in Algeria scramble to react.
November 5th 1939- German and allied forces counter attack the Yugoslavs and Italians in Austria pushing them out but they stay entrenched with some Russian help in Czechoslovakia.
November 15th 1939- As winter returns and American troops pour into Germany the allies prepare another winter offensive to try to reclaim some land.
November 20 1939- As American warplanes mass in Britain in large numbers the bombing of France intensifies and it damages French war production much greater than French bombings do the allies.
December 2nd 1939- All out allied offensives in North Africa push the Med Defense forces to Tunisia were they entrench to try to hold out.
December 10th 1939- Allied offensives in Germany pushes the French well back into the Rhineland but it is halted at the battle of Castrop.
December 20th 1939- The new French heavy tank a char B2 upgraded with a 88 mm gun is unveiled as the Jacques tank is effective in direct fights vs tigers but can France build enough to give them armor superiority?
January 5th 1940- The fall of Tunis as the French colonial army finally surrenders along with the Italians. Meanwhile, the British invade and overrun the French Levant and Syria.
February 15th 1940- American and Canadian forces invade southern Spain while the British invade from the south east.
February 18 1940- After facing mild resistance American troops overwhelm and crush the Spanish at Sevilla losing only 1000 men to 5000 Spanish and another 3000 captured.
February 20 1940- The British marching from Murica fight there way to Granada linking up with the Americans and pushing the Spanish out of far southern Spain easily.
March 1st 1940- Fearing that Spain will collapse Consul Chastien sends 15 French divisions to boost up the Spanish defence.
March 10th 1940- Allied forces in Spain go north from their positions and they meet heavy resistance at Cordoba.
March 20th 1940- German forces in Poland stop the Russians advance at Warsaw and this halts the last major MDP advance in Eastern Europe.
March 25th 1940- Chastien holds a war conference with his allies and attempts to make an agreement on not accepting terms with the opposition unless all powers agree. He fails to convince the Soviets or the Turks but he gets the Spanish and Italians to agree.
April 1st 1940- Nearing the Dutch border allied forces in Germany begin preparing a possible invasion of the Netherlands.
April 8th 1940- Anzac and British forces in the Mid East invade Turkey and the sultan is killed in a riot shortly afterwards. This is an obvious sign the Ottoman Empire is falling apart from within and out of its borders.
April 20th 1940- Allied forces in Spain push their way to Toledo were Franco-Spanish forces set up a line under General Henri Rochambou.
April 25 1940- American troops under Omar Bradley fail to get through the Rochambou line near Toledo. They lose 3000 men and some equipment in the attempt.
May 15 1940- In Spain Generalissimo Franco Decides to raise a militia out of those too young or old for normal service so he will have enough men to attempt a counterattack Gen Rochambou agrees with the militia but argues against a counter attack.
June 1st 1940- George Patton takes command of American forces in Spain and he crushes the Spanish counterattack with little restraint.
June 10th 1940- German and Canadian forces invade the Netherlands through East Friesland they push their way to Leuuwarden without much trouble and the Dutch forces block the bridges near Arnheim to slow them down.
June 30th 1940- General Rochambou desperately tries to hold the defences at and around Toledo as the allies under Patton surround and barrage him.
July 8th 1940- Patton breaks the defences at Toledo and the Americans defeat the Franco-Spanish badly causing Rochambou to surrender with his 15 French divisions.
July 30th 1940- With the greater part of Franco's army lost at Toledo all he has in reserve in Madrid is militia and they are Defeated by Canadian forces who assault and overwhelm the city. after its loss Franco flees to Salamanca.
August 1st 1940- With events in all fronts being reversals Chastien decides to send one more army group of ten units to Spain to try to hold his nearest allied country together.
August 10 1940- the Battle of Madrid begins as Anglo-American forces push to encircle the outnumbered Franco Spanish units.
August 15th 1940- Battle of Madrid continues as the encirclement nears completion,
meanwhile Spanish Militia surrender in droves as American tanks close in on them.
August 20th 1940- Anglo-German forces under Mannstein Attempt to Capture Arnhem but the Dutch forces prevent them by destroying the bridges.
leaving the Allies with only part of the city.
August 25th 1940- The decision is made by local Belgian Wallons to form Belgian units to help the French cause in the war Chastien's war cabinet accepts the deal and ten battalions are raised and sent to the Dutch theater Fleming units are also raised to fight alongside the Dutch army in the northern theater.
August 30 1940- Seeing the Dutch forces are too entrenched in the north the Germans try to push from the south and meet Franco-Dutch units at Borken Germany Were they push them into the Gelderland border.
September 3rd 1940- General Piedmont Commander of the French forces in the Madrid area Surrenders and ten of the French Divisions that were sent earlier go with him. This is a immediate sign that Fascist Spain is doomed.
September 10 1940- Franco's cabinet resign and surrender to the Allies as it happens Franco himself flees north to Zaragoza and allows the French to Declare martial law in whats left of Spain that they control.
September 15th 1940- German troops breakthrough at Arnhem after approaching from northern Germany the Dutch forces in the area are now surrounded but they offer resistance to the last Fearing German annexation if their country were to fall.
September 25th 1940- Mussolini sends Emergency Units to southern France to bolster the MDP forces in the area against possible allied incursion.
September 30 1940- Franco Spanish forces build and continue to build up a entrenched line of defences from San Sebastian to Barcelona.
October 2nd 1940- Allied forces all out assault the Barcelona line and fail to gain much ground.
thus plans are set forth on how to damage the MDP forces in other fronts.
October 15th 1940- ANZAC forces along with Americans invade and capture Sicily.
October 20th 1940- the Allied buildup in Sicily for a invasion of Italy begins seeing that southern France is too well defended at the time and the bulk of the MDP forces are in that theater Italy seems like possible easy pickings,
October 25th 1940- German forces reclaim the area from Essen to Dusseldorf pushing the thinly stretched French line farther into West Germany.
November 1st 1940- Anglo-German forces push towards Utrecht as Flemish and Belgian re-inforcements arrive in time to help build up the defense.
November 5th 1940- Allied invasion of Italy begins with the Italians rapidly losing territory and further thinning the French army out Chastien sends a couple of French divisions to help defend Italy.
November 10th 1940- The stalemate on the eastern front ends as German-PolishGerman Forces push all the way to Minsk then the Russians unsuccessfully attempt to retake Minsk.
November 15 1940- Stalin backs out off the MDP and agrees to a cease fire with the deal that the soviet union isn't to lose any territory from the conflict.
November 30 1940- Allied troops push upwards into Italy and defeat the Italian-French forces at Naples.
December 4th 1940- Anglo-German forces prepare for a attempt to break through the German-French front as troops pour in from the recently ended eastern front.
December 8th 1940- Chastien creates a new militia named the Old Guard after the famous Napoleonic unit.
it is comprised of those to old for regular military service and the mentally handicapped.
December 10th 1940- As Hilversum and Neeuwigen falls Utrecht is surrounded and Prime Minister de Geer decides to surrender his country to the Allies instead of continuing the futile defence of the Netherlands.
following this the Belgian forces are withdrawn to there own country to prepare its defense.
December 20 1940- the Germans invade hard and the French lose the area from Saarbruken to cologne now the front line in the German theater is around Aachen.
December 29th 1940- As a horrible winter storm disables allied air superiority Chastien himself takes over the the German theater Army and launches a counter attack to retake the Rhineland industrial area. The French push on for days and this battle is a set back for allied command.
January 12th 1940- Rome surrenders to the Allies and Mussolini is forced to flee north.
January 20th 1941- Just as the French were about to overrun Dusseldorf the skies clear up and Allied Air superiority pounds the French into a fast retreat.
February 5th 1941- The Anglo-German forces with fresh troops from the east Push the French back to Aachen and prepare to invade Belgium.
March 1st 1941- Under Patton's command the Barcelona line is finally broken and the Allies push to the southern border of France.
March 5th-June 10th 1941 Allies build up for a invasion of Normandy with a simultaneous invasion from southern France and Germany.
March 20 1941- Belgium surrenders to the Allies after a month long invasion France is now alone in the war and surrounded on all sides.
June 15th 1941- Invasion of Normandy- The Allies under Montgomery and Bradley land on the north coast of France and encounter heavy resistance but the French are simply overwhelmed and within hours the beaches are secure.
June 20th 1941- German invasion of the Alsace Lorraine area Chastien places Henri Renault as the commander of French forces in the eastern theater.
June 25th 1941- Allied invasion of Southern France through Spain commences And Patton pushes to Toulouse were he is repulsed with heavy losses Showing that Chastien's France will not fold easily.
July 10th 1941- Caen falls to the British and the Americans take Averanches.
July 15 1941- German Forces under Rommel Push to Nancy were they fail to overcome the cities staunch Defense.
July 20 1941- Chastien takes command of the Army of the Norman Defense front and uses his military Skills to stall the Allies but he is very low on supplies and France's economy is in shambles.
August 10th 1941- After the fall of Italy the collaboration government decided to join the Allies cause and they allow a Italian-Canadian invasion of France through their border which was pre-war Savoy and the Savoyese French units put up Extreme resistance resulting in a stalemate.
August 20th 1941- Fall of Nancy to the Germans Metz is surrounded and Renault escapes by airplane to Chalons.
September 5th 1941- Fall of Rouen to the allies. Chastien Raises yet a new militia out of the underage and even women that want to join in. They are called the Free Corps.
September 10th 1941- Battle of Chalons Renault takes personal command of the French forces and is shot in the arm and later stabbed by a Germans bayonet After the fighting ends the French are routed and Renault is captured.
September 20 1941- after a campaign that takes them from Toulouse to outside Lyon the Americans under Patton are finally stalled as The Old guard general Phillipe Dumanne Holds them off with the remnants of the French southern front.
October 5th 1941- The savoy front crumbles and Italian-Anzac forces take the entire area from Marseille to Grenoble.
October 15 1941- Brittany falls to the Americans after Months of fighting.
October 20 1941- Allied and German forces push on Paris from all directions Chastien pulls his pistol out and Leads from the front it is a very desperate gambit and he is shot up by a Canadian fighter plane before he gives command to his brother Luis Chastien and then kills himself to end his misery.
November 3rd 1941- After both sides suffered tens of thousands of losses the Germans take the French center of government and Luis Chastien surrenders unconditionally.
November 5th 1941- World War 2 ends.
December 20th 1941- The Allies decide to split France up into seven pieces And take part of France and part of the Netherlands and giving them to Belgium.
February 5th 1942- With Europe left in ruins and the former combatants low on funds There is widespread unrest in areas dominated by minorities and such Hungary votes to secede from Austria this year.
June 10th 1942- Communist guerrillas cause trouble in northern France were German peacekeepers deploy to put them down.
March 5th 1943- Widespread French unrest in the areas Germany annexed from World War 1.
June 8th 1943- Hans Kruger is elected chancellor of Germany he brings a policy of giving autonomy to the French-dominated areas of the west.
August 15th 1943- Communist rebels overthrow the new government of Hungary and The Austrians are to Weak to provide support So it is left to the Germans to either help or allow Communism to gain a foothold in Eastern Europe.
September 5th 1943- Stalin sends Soviet units to help the Communist in Hungary crush the remnant governments army This outrages The leaders of Western Europe but Not wanting another war they let it pass.
October 10th 1943- Unrest in Poland leads to Greater freedoms and autonomy in German Poland.
December 12th 1943- The French states ask the League of Nations for approval to form a loose league for co-operation and the French League gets approved.