Slovenia Human Rights - History

Slovenia Human Rights - History



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Women

Rape and Domestic Violence: Rape, including spousal rape and domestic violence, is illegal. Sexual violence is a criminal offense carrying a penalty from six months’ to eight years’ imprisonment. The penalty for rape is one to 10 years in prison. Police actively investigated accusations of rape and prosecuted offenders. There were 29 reported rapes, one attempted rape, and 23 other reported acts of sexual violence in the first eight months of the year.

The law provides from six months’ to 10 years’ imprisonment for aggravated and grievous bodily harm. When police received reports of spousal abuse or violence, they generally intervened and prosecuted offenders.

There was a network of maternity homes, safe houses, and shelters for women and children who were victims of violence. The total capacity of this network was 450 beds. The police academy offered annual training on domestic violence.

Sexual Harassment: Sexual harassment is a criminal offense carrying a penalty of up to three years’ imprisonment. The law prohibits sexual harassment, psychological violence, mistreatment, or unequal treatment in the workplace that causes “another employee’s humiliation or fear.” Authorities did not prosecute any sexual harassment cases during the year.

Coercion in Population Control: There were no reports of coerced abortion, involuntary sterilization, or other coercive population control methods. Estimates on maternal mortality and contraceptive prevalence are available at: www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/monitoring/maternal-mortality-2015/en/.

Discrimination: The law provides the same legal status and rights for women and men. Despite legal provisions for equal pay, inequities still existed.

Children

Birth Registration: Citizenship is derived from the parents with certain limitations. A child is granted citizenship at birth, provided that, at the time of birth, the child’s mother and father were citizens, one of the child’s parents was a citizen and the child was born on the territory of the country, or one of the child’s parents was a citizen while the other parent was unknown or of unknown citizenship and the child was born in a foreign country. Naturalization is also possible. Children of migrants and asylum seekers do not qualify for citizenship if they are born in Slovenia, although their parents may file for asylum or refugee status on their behalf.

Child Abuse: In the first eight months of the year, according to law enforcement authorities, there were 900 cases of domestic violence and 369 cases of parental negligence and child abuse.

There were 10 crisis centers for youth, with a combined capacity to accommodate 86 children. The government allowed children to stay at these centers until they reached the age of 21, if they were still in school.

Early and Forced Marriage: The minimum age for marriage is 18. Centers for social service can approve marriage of a person under the age of 18, together with the approval of parents or legal guardians. Child marriage occurred within the Romani community but was not a widespread problem.

Sexual Exploitation of Children: Statutory rape carries a prison sentence of one to eight years. The law sets the minimum age of consent for sexual relations at 15. The government generally enforced the law.

The law penalizes the possession, sale, purchase, or propagation of child pornography, and the government enforced the law effectively. The penalty for violations ranged from six months to eight years in prison.

As of mid-September, authorities had received reports of 99 criminal acts of sexual abuse of a child under the age of 15 and investigated 76 cases of child sexual exploitation involving pornographic photographs and videos disseminated on the Internet, compared with 77 such investigations in all of 2016. As of mid-September, authorities arrested 87 individuals on charges of internet child abuse or possession and distribution of pornographic images of children, compared with 71 arrests in all of 2016.

International Child Abductions: The country is a party to the 1980 Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction. See the Department of State’s Annual Report on International Parental Child Abduction at travel.state.gov/content/childabduction/en/legal/compliance.html.

Anti-Semitism

There were approximately 300 Jews in the country. Jewish community representatives reported some prejudice, ignorance, and false stereotypes of Jews propagated within society, largely through public discourse. There were no reports of anti-Semitic violence or overt discrimination.

The government promoted antibias and tolerance education in primary and secondary schools, and the Holocaust was a mandatory topic in the history curriculum.

Persons with Disabilities

The law prohibits discrimination against persons with physical, sensory, intellectual, and mental disabilities. The government generally enforced these provisions. The law mandates access to buildings for persons with disabilities, but modification of public and private structures to improve access continued at a slow pace, and some buildings--particularly older buildings--were not accessible. The law provides social welfare assistance and early-childhood, elementary, secondary, and vocational education programs for children with disabilities. It also provides vocational and independent living resources for adults with disabilities. The government continued to implement laws and programs to provide persons with disabilities with access to buildings, information, and communications.

National/Racial/Ethnic Minorities

Three officially recognized ethnic minorities live in the country: Roma (estimated at 7,000 to 12,000), Hungarians (approximately 8,000), and Italians (population approximately 4,000).

Discrimination against socially marginalized Roma persisted in some parts of the country. Organizations monitoring conditions in the Romani community noted that Roma continued to face difficulties securing adequate housing in traditional housing markets. Many Roma lived apart from other communities in illegal settlements lacking basic utilities, such as electricity, running water, sanitation, and access to transportation. Government officials emphasized that the illegality of settlements remained the biggest obstacle to providing Roma access to adequate housing, water, and sanitation. Under the law only owners or persons with another legal claim to land, such as legal tenants, may obtain public services and infrastructure, such as water, electricity, and sanitation.

Organizations monitoring conditions in the Romani community and officials employed in schools with large Romani student populations unofficially reported high illiteracy rates among Roma remained a problem. While education for children is compulsory through grade nine, school attendance and completion rates by Romani children remained low.

Although segregated classrooms are illegal, a number of Roma reported to NGOs that their children attended segregated classes and that school authorities selected them disproportionately to attend classes for students with special needs.

NGOs and community group representatives reported some prejudice, ignorance, and false stereotypes of Roma persisted within society, propagated largely through public discourse.

The government continued to implement a project to provide drinking water (via cisterns) to three Romani settlements, providing a temporary solution to a systemic problem. A government-established commission to safeguard Roma continued to function. The commission included representatives from the Romani community, municipalities, and the government.

In June the Ministry of Labor, Family, Social Affairs, and Equal Opportunities announced a public tender of 1.68 million euros (two million dollars) to establish multipurpose Roma Centers to strengthen the socioeconomic status of Romani community members.

Representatives of the Romani community participated in a program, which improved communication between police and individual Roma.

The government supported a project that trained 12 Romani health coordinators and undertook to cofinance health-care programs for Romani women, children, and youth.

The government supported a financial literacy project, funding 26 Romani educators to work with teachers and parents. According to the ministry, these educators had a positive effect on helping Romani children stay in school.

Acts of Violence, Discrimination, and Other Abuses Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity

While the law prohibits discrimination based on sexual orientation, societal discrimination was widespread.

The law considers crimes against LGBTI persons to be hate crimes and prohibits incitement to hatred based on sexual orientation. An NGO focused on LGBTI rights reported that 49 percent of LGBTI individuals had experienced violence or discrimination based on their sexual orientation at least once, and approximately 44 percent experienced violence or bullying in schools. The Ministry of Labor, Family, Social Affairs, and Equal Opportunities, as well as NGOs and law enforcement authorities, recorded incidents, but they did not track the number of cases of violence against LGBTI persons.

While the law and implementing regulations establish procedures for gender changes, LGBTI NGOs maintained the provisions are too general, subject to misinterpretation, and insufficiently protect the rights to health, privacy, and physical integrity of transgender persons.

By law same-sex couples are eligible to receive social benefits, such as unemployment insurance and survivor pensions, through their partners and the right to paid leave in the event of the partner’s death.

On January 1, the government formally established an independent Office of the Advocate of the Principle of Equality, replacing the previous office in the Ministry of Labor, Family, Social Affairs, and Equal Opportunity. The office reported its effectiveness was limited, however, due to insufficient resources and staffing problems.


Slovenia Human Rights - History

The police are under the effective civilian control of the Ministry of the Interior. By law, the armed forces do not exercise civil police functions.

The country has made steady progress toward developing a market economy. Privatization of the old Socialist economy continues, and trade has been reoriented to the West. Manufacturing accounts for most employment machinery and other manufactured products are the major exports. Unemployment remains a concern, but inflation has declined markedly, and real growth has reached 5 percent. The currency is stable, fully convertible, and backed by substantial reserves. The economy provides citizens with a modest standard of living.

The Government fully respected the human rights of its citizens, and the law and judiciary provide effective means of dealing with instances of individual abuse. Slovenia's small minority communities (under 8 percent of population) enjoy constitutionally protected status and are dealt with fairly in practice.

RESPECT FOR HUMAN RIGHTS

Section 1 Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

A. Political and Other Extrajudical Killing

B. Disappearance

C. Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment

Prison conditions meet minimum international standards and were not the subject of complaint by any human rights organization.

D. Arbitrary Arrest, Detention, or Exile

The Constitution also spells out the rights of detainees and limits on the Government's power to hold them (3 months maximum, with right of appeal). These rights and limitations are fully respected in practice.

E. Denial of Fair Public Trial

The judicial system comprises local and district courts, with the Supreme Court as the highest court. Judges, elected by the State Assembly (parliament) on the nomination of the Judicial Council, are constitutionally independent and serve indefinitely, subject to an age limit. The Judicial Council is composed of six sitting judges elected by their peers and five presidential nominees elected by the State Assembly. The nine-member Constitutional Court rules on the constitutionality of legislation.

The Constitution in great detail provides for the right to a fair trial, including provisions for: equality before the law, presumption of innocence, due process, open court proceedings, guarantees of appeal, and a prohibition against double jeopardy. These rights are respected in practice.

There were no reports of political prisoners.

F. Arbitrary Interference with Privacy, Family, Home, or Correspondence

Section 2 Respect for Civil Liberties, Including:

A. Freedom of Speech and Press

The press is now a vigorous institution growing out of its more restricted past. The media span the political spectrum from left to right. Because Slovenia is ethnically homogeneous, the major media do not represent a broad range of ethnic interests, although there is an Italian-language television channel as well as a newspaper available to the ethnic Italian minority who live on the Adriatic Coast. Hungarian radio programming is common in the northeast where there are about 10,000 ethnic Hungarians. Bosnian refugees and the Albanian community have newsletters in their own languages.

Slovenia has five major daily and several weekly newspapers. The major print media are supported through private investment and advertising, although the national broadcaster, RTV Slovenia, enjoys government subsidies, as do cultural publications and book publishing. There are five television channels, two of them independent private stations. Numerous foreign broadcasts are available via satellite and cable. All the major towns have radio stations and cable television. Numerous business and academic journals and publications are available. Foreign newspapers, magazines, and journals are available in the larger towns.

For over 40 years Slovenia was ruled by an authoritarian Communist political system. In theory and practice, the media enjoy full freedom in their journalistic pursuits. However, reporting about domestic politics may be influenced to some degree by self-censorship and indirect political pressures.

The election law requires the media to offer free space and time to political parties at election time.

The Constitution provides for autonomy and freedom for universities and other institutions of higher education. Slovenia has two universities, each with numerous affiliated research and study institutions. Academic freedom is respected, and centers of higher education are lively and intellectually stimulating.

B. Freedom of Peaceful Assembly and Association

C. Freedom of Religion

The appropriate role for religious instruction in the schools continues to be an issue of debate. The Constitution states that parents are entitled "to give their children a moral and religious upbringing. " Before 1945 religion was much more prominent in the schools, but now only those schools supported by religious bodies teach religion.

D. Freedom of Movement Within the Country, Foreign Travel, Emigration, and Repatriation

The Constitution provides for a right of political asylum for foreigners and stateless persons "who are persecuted for their stand on human rights and fundamental freedoms."

Since 1991 Slovenia has taken in refugees from the fighting in Croatia and especially Bosnia-Herzegovina, and has dealt with them humanely. The Government affords good protection to refugees there are some 24,000 in the country, about 20,000 of them registered.

Section 3 Respect for Political Rights: The Right of Citizens to Change their Government

Citizens have the right to change their government, voting by secure ballot on the basis of universal suffrage. In 1992 national elections-- with 10 parties competing for national office--brought to power a coalition government. The elections were conducted peacefully, without allegations of fraud. Slovenia has a mixed parliamentary and presidential system. The President proposes a candidate to the legislature for confirmation as Prime Minister, after consultations with the leaders of the political parties in the National Assembly.

The Constitution stipulates that the Italian and Hungarian ethnic communities are each entitled to at least one representative in the Assembly, regardless of their population numbers.

There are no restrictions on the participation of women or minorities in politics the Prime Minister's office has an active watchdog agency for monitoring and promoting participation by women in public life. Thirteen of 90 Members of Parliament are women, as are 2 cabinet ministers.

Section 4 Governmental Attitude Regarding International and Nongovernmental Investigation of Alleged Violations of Human Rights

Independent human rights monitoring groups promote respect for human rights and freedoms and freely investigate complaints about violations of human rights. The Government places no obstacles in the way of investigations by international or local human rights groups. The United Nations Human Rights Commission (UNHRC) in 1994 deleted Slovenia from the group of Yugoslav successor states monitored by the UNHRC for human rights abuses.

Section 5 Discrimination Based on Race, Sex, Religion, Disability, Language, or Social Status

The Constitution provides for equality before the law, and that is observed in practice. Slovenia's population (excluding refugees) is approximately 2 million, of which 1,727,018 are Slovenes and the remainder persons of 23 other nationalities. There are 54,212 Croats, 47,911 Serbs, 26,842 Muslims, 8,503 Hungarians, and 3,064 Italians.

The Constitution provides special rights for the "autochthonous Italian and Hungarian ethnic communities", including the right to use their own national symbols, enjoy bilingual education, and other privileges. It also provides that the small Romani communities shall have special status and rights, which are observed in practice.

Women

Equal rights for women are a matter of state policy. There is no official discrimination against women or minorities in housing, jobs, education, or other walks of life. Marriage, under the Constitution, is based on the equality of both spouses. The Constitution stipulates that the State shall protect the family, motherhood, and fatherhood.

In rural areas, women, even those employed outside the home, bear a disproportionate share of household work and family care because of a generally conservative social tradition. However, women are frequently encountered in business and in government executive departments.

Equal pay for equal work for men and women is the norm. Slovenia has gradually but steadily increased employment, although the unemployment rate is 13 percent. In such conditions, men and women both suffer from the loss of work. Both sexes have the same average period of unemployment. Women, however, still are found more often in lower paying jobs.

Children

The Government demonstrates its commitment to children's welfare through its system of public education and health care. There is no pattern of societal abuse against children.

People with Disabilities

Section 6 Worker Rights

A. The Right of Association

Slovene labor has two main groupings, with constituent branches throughout the country. A third, much smaller, regional labor union operates on the Adriatic coast. Unions are formally and actually independent of Government and the political parties, but individual union members hold positions in the legislature. The Constitution provides that the State shall be responsible for "the creation of opportunities for employment and for work".

There are no restrictions on joining or forming federations and affiliating with like-minded international union organizations.

B. The Right to Organize and Bargain Collectively

Export processing zones have been established in Koper, Maribor, and Nova Gorica. Workers' rights are the same in these zones as in the rest of the country.


Slovenia: ECHR judgment is a blow to Roma communities

The European Court of Human Rights’ judgment today that Slovenia did not violate the rights of two Roma families by failing to ensure access to basic services such as water and sanitation is a blow to Roma communities, and a missed opportunity to end a cycle of poverty and marginalization, said Amnesty International.

The two families from Roma settlements in the municipalities of Škocjan and Ribnica claimed, in a case supported by Amnesty International, that access to water was consistently denied to their communities on the basis that they live in “informal” settlements. The Court today rejected their complaint.

“It is shameful that, in 2020, some Roma families in Slovenia do not have adequate access to toilets and are forced to travel long distances to fetch water, sometimes from polluted streams,” said Nataša Posel, Director of Amnesty International Slovenia, which supported the litigation.

"The right to water was included in the Slovenian Constitution in 2016, but in informal Roma settlements, this right is still not being respected in practice. Regardless of the European Court’s ruling, that provision must now be implemented to protect the rights of Slovenia’s most marginalized and vulnerable community”.

Many Roma in Slovenia live in informal dwellings in rural areas that were built decades ago, but never regularised. Widespread discrimination often prevents Romani families from buying or renting housing in other areas. Under Slovenian law, a person can only obtain access to communal services, such as public water supply networks, if they own or hold a legal title to the land on which they live, together with a building permit. This requirement by default excludes many Roma communities. The complainants therefore alleged that the Slovenian authorities have not taken any steps aimed at eliminating this inequality in living conditions.

It is estimated that between 10,000 and 12,000 Roma people live in Slovenia. Many of them live in isolated and segregated informal settlements in rural areas in poorly constructed homes lacking security of tenure. Inadequate living conditions in informal settlements are one of the key contributors to Roma having dramatically lower life expectancy than that of average Slovenians – 55 compared to 77 years, respectively. Children are particularly vulnerable, with the mortality rate of babies born in Roma communities four times higher than the Slovenian average, and children under the age of four, seven times higher.

Amnesty International has been working with the Roma community and documenting human rights violations committed against them since 2000.


Children of Slovenia

In Slovenia, the situation of children is good, for the most part, for many years now, the country has adopted important measures and continues its efforts to guarantee and to protect Human Rights, specifically, Rights of the Child. However, serious problems (discrimination, domestic violence, human trafficking…) persist and require attention from Slovenian authorities.

Realization of Children’s Rights Index : 9,10 / 10
Green level : Good situation

Population: 1,996,617
Pop. ages 0-14: 14.4 %

Life expectancy: 79,6 years
Under-5 mortality rate: 2 ‰

Main problems faced by children in Slovenia:

In Slovenia, some groups or minorities are victims of discrimination, in particular the Roma minority and non-Slovenians of the former Yugoslavia.

Discrimination towards the Roma community

Slovenia has adopted many measures to eliminate the discrimination towards Roma communities. This is the case of the national program in favor of the Roma for 2010-2015. Nevertheless, the Roma minority remains marginalized and still victim to discrimination, notably in housing, health, education, and employment. Moreover, prejudice and hostile attitudes towards the Roma community persist, particularly in the realms of politics and media, even though the Slovenian penal code criminalizes racial hate.

-The situation of the in Slovenia

In February 1992, more than 25,000 people had been removed from the Slovenian registry of permanent residents, mainly people with origins of other republics of the former Yuglosavia that were living in Slovenia, but had not acquired the Slovenian nationality after its independence.

In March 2010, Slovenia adopted a law governing the legal status of these people called the “erased”. However, the situation of non-Slovenian former Yugoslavians (including Albanians, Bosnians, Macedonians, and Serbians) remains precarious in Slovenia despite several convictions from the Slovenian Constitutional Court and a decision of the European Court of Human Rights in June 2012, saying this practice is contrary to human rights.

Indeed, the legal status of non-Slovenian citizens of former Yugoslavia remains suspended: they have difficulties in exercising their social and economic rights, particularly with access to health services, social security, education and employment.

Trafficking of women and children

Slovenia is a country of origin, transit and destination for human trafficking. The first victims of this trafficking are women and children, who are often sent to Western Europe, particularly Italy and Germany where they are forced into prostitution. Despite Slovenia’s efforts to prevent and punish trafficking, the problem persists and the victims are still numerous.

In Slovenia, violence against women and children is still widespread. In the first half of 2011, for example, more than 1000 cases of domestic violence and more than 350 cases of parental negligence and child abuse were reported.

Children continue to be victims of trafficking in Slovenia.

Even though school is mandatory until 14 years of age, many children from the Roma community do not reach secondary schooling.

Poverty, discrimination, the lack of parental and familial support and also the language barrier, are some of the many obstacles for Roma children in going to school. The discrimination in schools and the absence of scholarly programs, inclusive and multicultural, goes against the right of education of children.

For example, the languages spoken by the Roma are totally absent from schools, unlike some other minority languages in the country. Roma children also face difficulties related to educational materials and the extreme poverty in which the community often lives.

Children are, for example, often incapable of doing their homework or studying in their cold, overpopulated homes, and sometimes are without electricity.

The difficulties that are faced by Roma children in education is also to do with the lack of education materials along with the extreme poverty in which they live.


The “erased” were mainly people from other former Yugoslav republics, who had been living in Slovenia. [1] They are mostly of non-Slovene or mixed ethnicity, and they include a significant number of members of Romani communities. [2]

Some of those affected by the “erasure” included former Yugoslav People's Army officers who did not apply for or were refused Slovenian citizenship, often on the grounds that they participated in the war against Slovenia or were otherwise deemed disloyal to Slovenia. [3]

Some of the “erased” were born in Slovenia but, on the basis of the republican citizenship and birthplace of their parents, had remained SFRY citizens of other Yugoslav republics. [4] Others had moved to Slovenia from other parts of Yugoslavia before the country’s dissolution, and remained there after 1991. [5]

In 1991, immediately after the declaration of independence by Slovenia, the approximately 200,000 residents of Slovenia who had citizenship of other republics of former Yugoslavia were granted the possibility to obtain, through an application, the citizenship of the new independent state. For those who would have chosen not to avail themselves of this possibility, the law required to register as "foreign" (a term denoting legal permanent residents without citizenship). Approximately 170,000 individuals presented the application, obtaining citizenship before the national elections in 1992. Some thousands chose the second option.

The majority of those who, contrary to legal provisions, did not register themselves as "foreigners" were removed from the registry of Permanent Residence in February 1992, losing all social, civil, and political rights. This action was of purely administrative nature (and thus excluded any possibility of appeal) and struck, according to unofficial estimates, over 18,000 people, including some who had actually left the country, while others were simply unaware of the existence of the law that required them to confirm their status through a new application.

In 1999 the Constitutional Court declared the act of "erasing" illegal and unconstitutional, and annulled its legal consequences. In the same year the Slovenian Parliament promulgated a law that offered the "erased" the opportunity to regain residence, but only to those who lived permanently in Slovenian territory. The Constitutional Court abrogated this law as another attempt in the same direction.

In 2003 the Court declared unconstitutional the 1992 Law that required residents with Slovenian citizenship of other Yugoslav republics to explicitly ask to obtain the status of "alien", and ordered the return of the status of residents at all "erased" with retroactive function (regardless of whether they actually did not live in Slovenia after 1992). Many lawyers (among others some former members of the Constitutional Court and several authors of the Constitution) harshly criticized this decision, since it annulled a legal provision included in the country's constitutional laws and thus, according to them, beyond the Court's jurisdiction.

The decision was followed by a harsh and lasting controversy, in which the LDS-led government gradually accepted the decisions taken by the Constitutional Court, while the opposition (SDS, N.Si, SLS and SNS) continued to criticize it. In February 2004, the parliamentary majority passed a law in accordance with the decision of the Court (which provided for the retroactivity only for those who were already in possession of residence) two months later, however, this law (called "Technical Law on the erased") was annulled by a referendum (supported by the centre-right opposition). This referendum was strongly contested by some institutions of the European Union.

As of 2007 the number of the "erased" was imprecise, with the group fragmented into different legal categories: some have regained residency and citizenship, some only residence, some were expelled, many of them are living in Slovenia illegally. According to some estimates there are still 6,000 people without legal status, while many of those who managed to get the right to permanent residency had to pay heavily for the consequences of years of irregularities.

The issue was brought before the European Commission, which stated that it does not have jurisdiction over such matter. Some of the affected made a collective appeal to the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg, claiming that "The cancellation is a European problem, because it violates fundamental human rights provided by the EU Convention." In 2012 the Grand Chamber of the ECHR decided the case (Kurić and Others v. Slovenia) in favour of the applicants (several of the "erased").

In 2005, and again in 2007, the SDS-led government proposed the regulation of the status of the "erased" by a Constitutional law that would treat each case individually. On both occasions, this compromise was rejected by the centre-left opposition.

An article from 2013 published by B92 stated that over 26,000 people had their residence rights taken away in February 1992, ending up in a situation "worse than refugees", since they had no possibilities for work and social protection. [6]


Slovenia Top in ECHR Report by Human Rights Violation Rate

A report providing the court's statistics for 1959-2014 shows that the ECHR received more than 8,400 cases against Slovenia, judging in 323 of the cases and finding at least one violation in 304 cases.

Most of the violations established concern the right to trial within a reasonable time and the right to effective legal remedy.

A graphic analysis of the ECHR support on the Rights Info portal finds Slovenia has the highest violation rate relative to its population with 148 violations per million people.

The country is followed by Malta with 102 violations per million people, Moldova (76), Bulgaria (68) and Greece (67). The rates are lowest in Spain (2), Germany (2), Denmark (3), Ireland (5) and the UK (5).

Slovenia, a member of the court since 1993, has lost in 94% of the cases, the same rate as Russia. Ukraine fared the worst at 99%, followed by Hungary and Azerbaijan at 95%.

The lowest rates of lost human rights cases were recorded by Denmark (33%), Sweden (41%), the UK (59%), the Netherlands (59%) and Switzerland (62%), according to the Rights Info portal.

Since its foundation, the ECHR has taken decisions in about 627,500 cases, issuing judgements in roughly 18,000 cases. Almost half concerned five countries, Turkey (3095), Italy (2312), Russia (1604), Romania (1113) and Poland (1070).

At least one violation was established in 84% of all cases handled. More than 42% pertain to fairness and duration of trial.


Slovenia - Political rights index

Source: Freedom House. 1 - the highest degree of freedom.

What is Slovenia political rights index?

Date Value Change, %
2018 1.00 0.00%
2017 1.00 0.00%
2016 1.00 0.00%
2015 1.00 0.00%
2014 1.00 0.00%
2013 1.00 0.00%
2012 1.00 0.00%
2011 1.00 0.00%
2010 1.00 0.00%
2009 1.00 0.00%
2008 1.00 0.00%
2007 1.00

See also

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Europe rights envoy says freedoms deteriorating in Slovenia

LJUBLJANA, Slovenia &mdash A European human rights envoy warned Friday of a “marked deterioration” of freedom of expression and of the media in Slovenia under the government of right-wing Prime Minister Janez Jansa.

The Council of Europe commissioner for human rights, Dunja Mijatovic, said in a memorandum that “some steps taken by the Slovenian government in recent months risk undermining the ability of independent voices to speak freely.”

“Hostile public discourse, as well as smear campaigns and intimidation targeting civil society activists and those who express critical opinions, harm free expression and can have a chilling effect on media freedom,” Mijatovic wrote, according to a press release from her office.

Mijatovic urged the government to act to improve the situation and listed recommendations.

The Slovenian government disputed the findings in comments sent to Mijatovic in response. The freedom of the media have not been violated by any legal acts, it said.

“Any criticism leveled at the concrete coverage of the media by politicians and the prime minister cannot in any way be considered as an attack on media freedom and the independence of journalistic work,” the government said. “Freedom of expression is a right that belongs to everyone, including the government and its representatives, and does not end with high rhetoric, but also includes critical expression.”

Populist Jansa has faced growing criticism for what is seen as an increasingly authoritarian approach in the style of his ally, Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orban.

Thousands of people protested in Slovenia recently, demanding the government’s ouster and an early election over what they said were eroding democratic standards in the country of 2 million.

A traditionally moderate Alpine nation, Slovenia also has seen a rise in political tensions recently that critics blame on government-fueled hate speech and lack of tolerance.

Mijatovic called on the Slovenian authorities to take action to appease those tensions and to “encourage mutual respect in the exchange of opinions.”

“Members of the government must refrain from making stigmatizing and misleading comments about the work of civil society, and should publicly condemn such discourse by others,” she said.

Jansa has repeatedly dismissed any criticism at home and from abroad as a liberal conspiracy against his conservative government. He is known for attacking journalists and critics on social media.

Mijatovic listed a “range of problems” regarding media freedoms, including “harassment, intimidation and criminal lawsuits against journalists, restrictions on access to public information, and government actions against public service media.”

“The commissioner deplores in particular a trend of sexist harassment and misogynistic speech against female journalists,” said the press release.

MIjatovic also expressed regret that the “Slovenian government appears to have used the COVID19 pandemic to discourage the free expression of dissent or political opposition” by blanket bans on protests and fines for violations.


Commissioner for Human Rights

[29/01/2013 09:30] "The "erasure" of thousands of people from the Register of Permanent Residents of Slovenia in 1992 continues to adversely affect the human rights of many ‘erased' persons. The Slovenian government should step up its efforts and provide adequate reparation to all victims" said Nils Muižnieks, Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights, in a letter addressed to the Prime Minister of Slovenia, Mr Janez Janša, published today.

The Commissioner calls on the Slovenian authorities to review the 2010 Legal Status Act in order to facilitate the re-inclusion into Slovenian society of those "erased" persons who still wish to have their residence status restored. He is particularly concerned at the low number of applications and granted requests under this law, which may a indicate lack of effectiveness. "It would be useful to extend the deadline for the submission of applications for permanent residence, which expires next July, and to exempt the "erased" persons from the payment of the relevant administrative fees."

"I have noted with satisfaction that the Slovenian authorities translated a brochure aimed at informing the "erased" persons about the procedure that may lead to the granting of permanent residence into several regional languages. Additional efforts are necessary to ensure wider dissemination of such information."

In addition, the Commissioner raises his particular concern about the plight of those, especially children, who became and may still be stateless following the "erasure". "The right to a nationality is a human right and member states have the obligation to prevent statelessness. Slovenia should provide a remedy and accede to the Council of Europe Conventions on Nationality and on the Avoidance of Statelessness in Relation to State Succession."


Slovenia Human Rights - History

The Ministry of the Interior supervises the police. The security services report to the Prime Minister. There were no reports of human rights abuses committed by police or security services. The armed forces do not exercise civil police functions.

Since independence, the economy has made steady progress in developing a market economy. Most housing and 20 percent of state-owned firms have been privatized. Trade has been reoriented to Western markets, with less than 25 percent still going east. The gross domestic product increased for the second year since 1990. Manufacturing and mining employ 46 percent of the labor force, and agriculture 2 percent. Major exports include machinery, transport equipment, and other manufactured products.

There were no major human rights problems in 1994. The Constitution and actual practice accord protected status to the small Italian and Hungarian communities, as well as to the Roma. The President named a national ombudsman in 1994, with the specific mandate of monitoring human rights. The ombudsman, recently appointed, so far has not played a particularly active role. A vigorous, but at times not fully responsible, free press and an independent judiciary serve to some extent as human rights "watchdogs." The legacy of the Communist past, however, makes this a new and unfamiliar role for the press.

RESPECT FOR HUMAN RIGHTS

Section 1 Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

A. Political and Other Extrajudicial Killing

B. Disappearance

C. Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment

D. Arbitrary Arrest, Detention, or Exile

The authorities may hold a detainee with cause for a maximum of 3 months, and the Supreme Court may extend detention for another 3 months. In practice, the authorities fully respect these rights and limitations.

In a highly publicized as well as politicized event in March, the Defense Minister was forced from office after active members of a military unit pulled a former Defense Ministry civilian employee from his car and beat him. The individual was suspected of illegally holding classified documents. The circumstance and legality under Slovene law of his arrest in a nonmilitary place and his subsequent treatment at the hands of the soldiers have not been fully explained, but the actions of the military unit appeared arbitrarily to contravene civil authority.

E. Denial of Fair Public Trial

The judicial system comprises local and district courts, with the Supreme Court as the highest court. Judges, elected by the State Assembly (parliament) on the nomination of the Judicial Council, are constitutionally independent and serve indefinitely, subject to an age limit. The Judicial Council has six sitting judges elected by their peers and five presidential nominees elected by the State Assembly. The nine-member Constitutional Court rules on the constitutionality of legislation.

F. Arbitrary Interference with Privacy, Family, Home, or Correspondence

Section 2 Respect for Civil Liberties, Including:

A. Freedom of Speech and Press

Slovenia has five major dailies and several weekly newspapers. There are three television channels, one of them independent of government control. All the major towns have radio stations. Two of the newspapers and one television station are privately owned. The major print media are supported through private investment and advertising, although some of the electronic media enjoy indirect government subsidies. Foreign newspapers, magazines, and journals are available in the larger towns.

After 40 years of authoritarian one-party rule, self-censorship in the media is a way of life for journalists brought up and supported by the Communist regime. Long accustomed to getting articles published under the old system, these journalists have been cautious about expressing criticism. Print and broadcast journalists who have taken up the profession more recently, however, are less inclined to engage in self-censorship.

The election law requires the media to offer free space and time to political parties at election time.

Universities and other institutions of higher education are constitutionally autonomous, and academic freedom is respected.

B. Freedom of Peaceful Assembly and Association

C. Freedom of Religion

D. Freedom of Movement Within the Country, Foreign Travel, Emigration, and Repatriation

The Constitution provides for the right of political asylum for foreigners and stateless persons "who are persecuted for their stand on human rights and fundamental freedoms."

Slovenia since 1991 has taken in refugees from the fighting in Croatia and especially in Bosnia and Herzegovina and has dealt with them humanely and expeditiously. There are some 35,000 registered refugees. The number of refugees reported by the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees decreased significantly in 1994 after an official registration drive. Some refugees have blended into the local population, and others have resettled out of Slovenia.

Section 3 Respect for Political Rights: The Right of Citizens to Change Their Government

The Constitution provides that the Italian and Hungarian ethnic communities, regardless of their total population, are each entitled to at least one representative in the State Assembly.

There are no restrictions on women or minorities voting or participating in politics the Prime Minister's office has a watchdog agency for monitoring and promoting participation by women in public life. There are 12 women in the Parliament. The Cabinet has two female Ministers, those of Justice and Labor.

Section 4 Governmental Attitude Regarding International and Nongovernmental Investigation of Alleged Violations of Human Rights

Section 5 Discrimination Based on Race, Sex, Religion, Disability, Language, or Social Status

Slovenia has a population (excluding refugees) of approximately 2 million, 91 percent of whom are Slovenes, 3 percent Croats, 2 percent Serbs, and 1 percent Muslims. Of the remainder, some 8,500 are ethnic Hungarians, and 3,100 are ethnic Italians.

The Constitution guarantees special rights to the "autochthonous Italian and Hungarian ethnic communities," such as the right to use their own national symbols, establish organizations, enjoy bilingual education, and other privileges. The small Roma communities also have special status and rights, which are observed in practice.

Women

In practice, women, even those employed outside the home, bear a disproportionate share of household work and family care, resulting, particularly in rural areas, from a generally conservative social tradition. Slovenia generally provides equal pay for equal work for men and women. Emerging from an economic recession with unemployment rates close to 14 percent, both men and women have suffered from loss of work, and both have the same average period of unemployment. Women, however, still are found more often in lower paying jobs. At the same time, women are frequently encountered in business, academia, public life, and government.

It is difficult to determine with specificity the extent of violence against women in Slovenia. In general, the level of personal crime and violence is relatively low. The problem of spouse abuse and violence against women exists, and police are not reluctant to intervene in such cases. Crimes of abuse of women are dealt with in accordance with the Penal Code. There is no special legislation on crimes against women.

Children

People with Disabilities

Section 6 Worker Rights

A. The Right of Association

Slovenia now has two main labor groupings, with constituent branches throughout the country, as well as a third, much smaller, regional labor union on the Adriatic coast. Unions are formally and actually independent of government and the political parties, but individual unionists may and do hold positions in the legislature.

The Constitution provides for the right to strike, but in 1993 Parliament for the first time passed legislation restricting strikes by some public sector employees. A number of strikes occurred in 1994, largely over wages and working conditions.

There are no restrictions on joining or forming federations and affiliating with like-minded international organizations.


Watch the video: Η Πιο Συγκλονιστική Ομιλία Που Θα Ακούσετε Ποτέ, G Yourofsky