Chimu Gold Rattle

Chimu Gold Rattle


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.


ANCIENT COPPER PINS RATTLE AND SPOONS FROM THE CHIMU PRE-COLUMBIAN INDIANS *PC325

This is a wonderful set of 5 copper implements of the ancient Pre-Columbian Chimu Culture dating to a period from 800-1200 A.D. . The prize of the set is a complete and WORKING copper rattle pin that still makes sound. There are two decorative ritual spoons, a larger spoon that was clipped in ancient times, and a heavy pin with a rooster on the end (perhaps once owned by an artist to engrave items such as clay, bone or stone).

The Chimú culture arose about 900 AD, succeeding the Moche culture, and was later conquered by the Inca emperor Topa Inca Yupanqui around 1470, fifty years before the arrival of the Spanish in the region. The Chimu culture was centered on Chimor with the capital city of Chan Chan, a large adobe city in the Moche Valley of present-day Trujillo, Peru. The Chimú occupied a strip of desert on the north coast of Peru. The rivers in the region carved a series of fertile valley plains, which were very flat and well-suited to irrigation. Agriculture and fishing were both very important to the Chimú economy.

Worshipping the moon, the Chimú, unlike the Inca, considered it more powerful than the sun. Offerings played an important role in religious rites. A common object for offerings, as well as one used by artisans, was the shell of the Spondylus shellfish, which resides only in the warm coastal waters off present-day Ecuador. Associated with the sea, rainfall, and fertility, Spondylus shells were highly valued and traded by the Chimú people, and the exchange of the shells played a significant economic and political role in the empire.

The western coastal desert region of South America is considered the most arid place on our planet. Because of this, it has protected ancient objects in near perfect preservation where most other regions of the world would have claimed them to rot and decay. One of the most famous historical artifacts of Pre-Spanish archaeology in this region is ancient textiles of the former native American empires that once thrived there over 1000 years ago. Preserved as if many were made just yesterday, these woven textiles shed amazing insight on the mind, beliefs and practices of this ancient peoples. In their world, these woven fabrics were prized greater than gold or silver. The possession of these colorful and intricately woven textiles were a show to all that their owners were amongst the most noble and richest members of the society of that day.

The ancient textiles of this region and peoples were made up of hand spun and woven fibers. These fibers were either cotton or the wool of indigenous camelids that included the llama, alpaca, guanaco and vicuna. Some textiles were made of dyed fibers, used alternatively with different colors to create patterns. Some textiles were woven of a few or single primary color with the design hand-painted on the cloth after the weaving was completed. Other textiles were embroidered and even appliqués of shell, gemstones, gold or silver were added within the weaving.


ANCIENT PRE-COLUMBIAN CHIMU COPPER DECORATIVE AND RATTLE PINS *PC329

This is a wonderful pair of TWO copper decorative pins of the ancient Pre-Columbian Chimu Culture dating to a period from 800-1200 A.D. . Both feature superb preservation down to the complete, delicate pin. One is a decorative flat headed pin and the other is a triangular rattle pin THAT STILL WORKS! The rattle pin still has the original tiny ancient pebbles placed inside that make the rattle sound! These pins would have been worn in either the hair or to affix textile garments, as additional decorative body adornment.

The Chimú culture arose about 900 AD, succeeding the Moche culture, and was later conquered by the Inca emperor Topa Inca Yupanqui around 1470, fifty years before the arrival of the Spanish in the region. The Chimu culture was centered on Chimor with the capital city of Chan Chan, a large adobe city in the Moche Valley of present-day Trujillo, Peru. The Chimú occupied a strip of desert on the north coast of Peru. The rivers in the region carved a series of fertile valley plains, which were very flat and well-suited to irrigation. Agriculture and fishing were both very important to the Chimú economy.

Worshipping the moon, the Chimú, unlike the Inca, considered it more powerful than the sun. Offerings played an important role in religious rites. A common object for offerings, as well as one used by artisans, was the shell of the Spondylus shellfish, which resides only in the warm coastal waters off present-day Ecuador. Associated with the sea, rainfall, and fertility, Spondylus shells were highly valued and traded by the Chimú people, and the exchange of the shells played a significant economic and political role in the empire.

The western coastal desert region of South America is considered the most arid place on our planet. Because of this, it has protected ancient objects in near perfect preservation where most other regions of the world would have claimed them to rot and decay. One of the most famous historical artifacts of Pre-Spanish archaeology in this region is ancient textiles of the former native American empires that once thrived there over 1000 years ago. Preserved as if many were made just yesterday, these woven textiles shed amazing insight on the mind, beliefs and practices of this ancient peoples. In their world, these woven fabrics were prized greater than gold or silver. The possession of these colorful and intricately woven textiles were a show to all that their owners were amongst the most noble and richest members of the society of that day.

The ancient textiles of this region and peoples were made up of hand spun and woven fibers. These fibers were either cotton or the wool of indigenous camelids that included the llama, alpaca, guanaco and vicuna. Some textiles were made of dyed fibers, used alternatively with different colors to create patterns. Some textiles were woven of a few or single primary color with the design hand-painted on the cloth after the weaving was completed. Other textiles were embroidered and even appliqués of shell, gemstones, gold or silver were added within the weaving.


Contents

The Berlin Philharmonic was founded in Berlin in 1882 by 54 musicians under the name Frühere Bilsesche Kapelle (literally, "Former Bilse's Band") the group broke away from their previous conductor Benjamin Bilse after he announced his intention of taking the band on a fourth-class train to Warsaw for a concert. The orchestra was renamed and reorganized under the financial management of Hermann Wolff in 1882. Their new conductor was Ludwig von Brenner in 1887 Hans von Bülow, the conductor of the Meiningen Court Orchestra and one of the most famous piano virtuosos of the time, took over the post. This helped to establish the orchestra's international reputation, and guests Hans Richter, Felix von Weingartner, Richard Strauss, Gustav Mahler, Johannes Brahms and Edvard Grieg conducted the orchestra over the next few years. In 1887, the pianist and composer Mary Wurm became the first woman to conduct the orchestra. [1] Programmes of this period show that the orchestra possessed only 46 strings, much less than the Wagnerian ideal of 64.

In 1895, Arthur Nikisch became chief conductor, and was succeeded in 1923 by Wilhelm Furtwängler. Despite several changes in leadership, the orchestra continued to perform throughout World War II. After Furtwängler (who was personally opposed to the Nazi regime [ citation needed ] ) fled to Switzerland to escape arrest by the Gestapo in January 1945, Leo Borchard became chief conductor. The final wartime concert was on 12 April 1945, just before the commencement of the Battle of Berlin. The program included Brünnhilde's Immolation Scene and the finale from Wagner's Götterdämmerung (Twilight of the Gods). [2] Hitler Youth are reported to have distributed cyanide pills to the audience for those who wished, by death, to escape the imminent arrival of the Red Army. [3] [4]

Borchard was accidentally shot and killed later in 1945 by the American forces occupying Berlin. [5] Sergiu Celibidache then took over as chief conductor for seven years, from 1945 to 1952. Furtwängler returned as chief conductor in 1952 and held the post until his death in 1954.

The orchestra elected Herbert von Karajan as its next chief conductor. Karajan served in the post from 1955 until his resignation in April 1989, only months before his death. Under him, the orchestra made a vast number of recordings and toured widely, growing and gaining fame. The orchestra hired its first female musician, violinist Madeleine Carruzzo, in 1982. [6] However, Karajan's hiring in September 1982 of Sabine Meyer, the first female wind player to the orchestra, led to controversy when the orchestra voted 73 to 4 not to admit her to the orchestra. Meyer subsequently left the orchestra. After Karajan stood down from the orchestra in 1989, the orchestra offered the chief conductorship to Carlos Kleiber, who declined.

In 1989, the orchestra elected Claudio Abbado as its next principal conductor. It was the first time the Philharmonic resorted to democratic voting after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. Abbado expanded the orchestra's repertoire beyond the core classical and romantic works into more modern 20th-century works. Abbado stepped down from the chief conductorship of the orchestra in 2002. During the post-unification period, the orchestra encountered financial problems resulting from budgetary stress in the city of Berlin. [7] In 2006, the Orchestra Academy of the Berlin Philharmonic established the Claudio Abbado Composition Prize in Abbado's honour. [8]

In June 1999, the musicians elected Sir Simon Rattle as their next chief conductor. [9] Rattle made it a condition of his signing with the Berlin Philharmonic that it be turned into a self-governing public foundation, with the power to make its own artistic and financial decisions. This required a change to state law, which was approved in 2001, allowing him to join the organization in 2002. In his first season, he initiated community projects, such as a performance of Stravinsky's Le Sacre du printemps danced by 250 children public schools, documented in Rhythm Is It!. Rattle's contract with the orchestra was initially through 2012. In April 2008, the BPO musicians voted in favour of retaining Rattle as their chief conductor through 2018. [10] From 2006 to 2010, the general manager of the orchestra was Pamela Rosenberg. [11] In September 2010, Martin Hoffmann became the orchestra's new Intendant. [12] Hoffmann stood down as its Intendant after the close of the 2016/2017 season. Andrea Zietzschmann became Intendantin of the orchestra as of the 2017-2018 season. [13] In December 2020, the orchestra announced the extension of Zietzschmann's contract as Intendantin through 31 August 2025. [14]

In 2006, the orchestra announced it would investigate its role during the Nazi regime. [15] In 2007, Misha Aster published The Reich's Orchestra, his study of the relationship of the Berlin Philharmonic to the rulers of the Third Reich. [16] Also in 2007, the documentary film The Reichsorchester by Enrique Sánchez Lansch was released. [17]

UNICEF appointed the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra and Rattle as Goodwill Ambassadors in November 2007. [18] On 10 January 2013, the orchestra announced the scheduled end of Rattle's tenure as artistic director and chief conductor in 2018. [19] In 2014, the orchestra founded its own label, Berliner Philharmoniker Recordings.

After an abortive first attempt on 11 May 2015, [20] the orchestra on 21 June 2015 elected Kirill Petrenko as its next artistic director and chief conductor. [21] [22] In October 2015, the orchestra announced that Petrenko was to formally commence his contract as chief conductor with the 2019/20 season. [23] [24] A year after this news, in October 2016, the orchestra specified more precisely the start of Petrenko's tenure as 19 August 2019. [25]

The orchestra's first concert hall, the Philharmonie situated on the Bernburger Straße in Berlin Kreuzberg, was inaugurated in 1882 in a building previously used as a skating rink [26] and converted by the architect Franz Schwechten. In 1899, a smaller concert hall, the Beethovensaal on Köthener Straße, was also inaugurated for chamber music and chamber ensembles. The first Philharmonie was used until British bombers destroyed it on 30 January 1944, the anniversary of Hitler becoming chancellor. [27] The orchestra played until the end of the war in the Staatsoper, Unter den Linden. The Staatsoper was also destroyed on 3 February 1945. In need of a venue, the Berlin Philharmonic played during the years following the war in the Titania-Palast, an old movie theater converted in a concert hall, and still used the Beethovensaal for smaller concerts. During the 1950s the orchestra moved its concerts at the Musikhochschule (today part of the Berlin University of the Arts), in the Joseph-Joachim-Konzertsaal. However, most of the recordings were done at the Jesus-Christus-Kirche in Berlin Dahlem, celebrated for its acoustics.

The need for a new Philharmonie was expressed since 1949, when the Gesellschaft der Freunde der Berliner Philharmonie e.V. (Friends of the Berliner Philharmonie Society) was created to gather funds. The building of the new Philharmonie started in 1961, following the design of architect Hans Scharoun, and it was inaugurated on 15 October 1963, with a performance of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony, conducted by Herbert von Karajan. Its location made it part of the Kulturforum, and the great hall (2,440 seats) was then complemented by a chamber-music hall, the Kammermusiksaal (1,180 seats), built in 1987, following the design of architect Edgar Wisniewski, after a project by Hans Scharoun.

The Berliner Philharmonie has since been the home of the Berlin Philharmonic, and its symbol. The orchestra's logo is based on the pentagon-shape of the concert hall.

On 20 May 2008, a fire broke out at the Philharmonie. One-quarter of the roof underwent considerable damage as firefighters cut openings to reach the flames beneath the roof. [28] [29] The hall interior also sustained water damage, but was otherwise "generally unharmed". The firefighters limited damage by the use of foam. The orchestra was restricted from use of the hall for concerts until June 2008. [30]

On 18 December 2008, the orchestra announced the official creation of a Digital Concert Hall. [31] This hitherto unique internet platform of the BPO enables persons with computer access all over the world to see and hear the Philharmonic's concerts, live or on demand, not only under recent conductors, but even previous concerts conducted, e.g., by Claudio Abbado. Since July 2014, the Digital Concert Hall additionally offers livestreams produced from HD movies of concerts by Herbert von Karajan in the 1960s and early 1970s. Since 2010, selected concerts of the Berlin Philharmonic have been transmitted live to cinemas in Germany and Europe. [32]

    (1882–1887) (1887–1893) (1894–1895) (1895–1922) (1922–1945) (May–August 1945) (1945–1952) (1952–1954) (1954–1989) (1989–2002) (2002–2018) (2019–present)

The orchestra conferred honorary membership to the conductors Daniel Barenboim (he is also the first and only honorary conductor), Bernard Haitink, Nikolaus Harnoncourt, Seiji Ozawa, Mariss Jansons, and Zubin Mehta. [33]

  • 2001 – "Ensemble/Orchestral Album of the Year" – Sir Simon Rattle, Mahler: Symphony No. 10 (EMI, 2000)
  • 2003 – "Ensemble/Orchestral Album of the Year" – Sir Simon Rattle, Mahler: Symphony No. 5 (EMI, 2002)
    – Best Opera Recording – Herbert von Karajan, Helga Dernesch, Thomas Stolze, Jess Thomas, Wagner: Siegfried (DGG, 1969) – Best Orchestral Performance – Herbert von Karajan, Beethoven: Symphonies (9) (Complete) – Best Orchestral Recording – Leonard Bernstein, Mahler: Symphony No. 9 (DGG, 1992 recording 1979) – Best Chamber Music Performance – Daniel Barenboim, Dale Clevenger, Larry Combs, Daniele Damiano, Hansjörg Schellenberger, Beethoven/Mozart: Quintets (Chicago – Berlin) (1994) – Best Small Ensemble Performance – Claudio Abbado, Hindemith Kammermusik No. 1 mit Finale 1921, Op. 24 No. 1 (with members of Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra) (EMI, 1996) – Best Classical Vocal Performance – Claudio Abbado, Anne Sofie von Otter, Thomas Quasthoff: Mahler: Des Knaben Wunderhorn (DGG, 1999) – Best Orchestral Performance – Sir Simon Rattle, Mahler: Symphony No. 10 (EMI, 2000) – Best Instrumental Soloist(s) Performance (with orchestra) – Antonio Pappano, Leif Ove Andsnes: Rachmaninov, Piano Concertos 1 and 2 (EMI, 2006) [34]
  • 1981 – "Opera Recording of the Year" – Herbert von Karajan, Wagner: Parsifal (DGG, 1980)
  • 1981 – "Orchestral Record of the Year" – Herbert von Karajan, Mahler: Symphony No. 9 (DGG, 1980)
  • 1984 – "Record of the Year" – Herbert von Karajan, Mahler: Symphony No. 9 (DGG, 1984 live recording 1982)
  • 2000 – "Orchestral Record of the Year" – Sir Simon Rattle, Mahler: Symphony No. 10 (EMI, 2000)
  • 2004 – "Concerto" – Mariss Jansons, Leif Ove Andsnes, Grieg: Piano Concerto and Schumann: Piano Concerto (EMI, 2004)
  • 2006 – "Record of the Year" – Claudio Abbado, Mahler: Symphony No. 6 (DGG, 2005)

ECHO (formerly Deutscher Schallplattenpreis) of Deutsche Phono-Akademie

  • 2003 – Chorwerkeinspielung – Sir Simon Rattle, Rundfunkchor Berlin, MDR Rundfunkchor, Ernst-Senff-Chor Berlin, Karita Mattila, Anne Sofie von Otter, Thomas Moser, Philip Langridge, Thomas Quasthoff: Schoenberg, Gurre-Lieder (EMI, 2002)
  • 2006 – Musik-DVD Produktion des Jahres – Sir Simon Rattle, Thomas Grube and Enrique Sánchez Lansch (director), Uwe Dierks (producer): Rhythm Is It! (2005)
  • 2006 – Sinfonische Einspielung – Claudio Abbado: Mahler, Symphony No. 6 (DGG, 2005)
  • 2016 – Orchester/Ensemble – Jean Sibelius, Symphonies 1–7, (Berliner Philharmoniker Recordings, 2015)
  • 2016 – "Symphonic" – Sir Simon Rattle: Jean Sibelius, Symphonies 1–7 (Berliner Philharmoniker Recordings, 2015)
  • 2017 – "Symphonic" – Claudio Abbado: The Last Concert (Berliner Philharmoniker Recordings, 2016)

Timbre de Platine (Platinum Stamp) awarded by Opéra International magazine


Related information

Norte Chico and Kotosh

These Pre-Inca cultures belong to the Ceramic and Initial Periods.

Chavin, Paracas and Lima

These pre-Inca cultures belong to the Early Horizon Period dating back 3000 years.

Nasca and Moche

Cultures thriving in the Early Intermediate Period date from approximately 200BCE to 600CE

Wari, Tiwanaku and Lambayeque

The Middle Horizon period extends from approximately 600 to 1000. New cultures emerged and creating the first Andean Empire.

Inca Civilization

The Inca Civilization was the largest pre-Columbian Civilization in the Americas.


It has five halls:

  • Main Room
  • Vessels Room
  • Feathers Room
  • The Litter Room
  • Working Tools Room

The Arms of the World Museum was also founded by Miguel Mujica Gallo in 1968. It exhibits 20,000 pieces, including weapons from all over the world, equestrian equipment and implements, uniforms, etc.

In ancient times, men exhibited their wealth through their weapons: gold and diamonds, emeralds and opals, rubies and turquoises decorated their swords and sables. The hilts and shield were handcrafted by talented craftsmen, with such art that they conjured fantastic animals and flowers, engraving and sculpturing them on the weapons they manufactured.

From its most distant origins, the sword has been a symbol of authority and leadership which virtues are manifested in chivalry and courage.

The handgun, small cannon, culverin, shotgun, harquebus and the Italian pistols of the mid-14th Century were a considerable modification of the primitive weapons, such as the crossbow.

The wheel mechanism and the silica caused the combustion of the blasting charge which was later replaced by the agate, because this mineral had a greater consistency, followed by the harquebus, rifle and carbine. Firearms evolved slowly and it was during the course of the first thirty years of the second half of the 19th Century that large changes in individual arms were produced: an essential change in the technique, an industrial revolution. Thus, between 1850 and 1860, the cylinder-ogival missile was introduced, with an increase in range and improvement of accuracy. During the period 1860 – 1866, with the outbreak of the American Civil War and the Prussian-Austrian War, the metal cartridge that simplifies the weapon was permanently adopted. In 1878, coinciding with the war between Russian and Turkey, the repeater was adopted.

To tour the Weapons of the World Museum is to go back in time, traveling the world and history: admiring the swords and daggers, uniforms, spears, guns and pistols of different civilizations and changing cultures.


Chimu Gold Rattle - History

When Sister Wendy Beckett first shared her love of European paintings with public television viewers in 1997, the New York Times observed that the 67-year-old nun from a British monastery was "fast on her way to becoming the most unlikely and famous art critic in the history of television." Now Sister Wendy is crossing the Atlantic to share her artistic passion once again in a new six-part series premiering over three consecutive Wednesdays, September 5, 12, and 19 from 8 to 10pm on PBS (check local listings).

In Sister Wendy's American Collection, the engaging art critic moves beyond the world of daVinci and Monet to explore the wider riches of six of America's greatest museums: Boston's Museum of Fine Arts, Forth Worth's Kimbell Art Museum, New York's Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, the Art Institute of Chicago, and the Cleveland Museum of Art. Each one-hour episode focuses on one of the featured museums, showcasing its treasures from around the world.

"The United States, the land of the free, is particularly rich in museums," Sister Wendy says. "That is appropriate, because museums are a means to freedom."

Exuding her signature blend of intellect, reverence, and admiration for great works of art, Sister Wendy glides from gallery to gallery, illuminating the cultural and creative history of a diverse range of artistic works. From portraits by Rembrandt to Egyptian sculptures, Early American furniture to Islamic calligraphy, Sister Wendy takes viewers beyond the household names of the art world, introducing them to the greatest treasures from cultures both famous and obscure.

"One of the wonderful things about a museum is how you're jolted into confronting art from strange and wonderful civilizations," Sister Wendy says. "And you look and learn and expand your horizons."

In Sister Wendy's American Collection, each work of art is the launching point for a brief but fascinating history lesson: A gold and turquoise ceremonial knife introduces viewers to Peru's lost Chimu Empire ancient Egyptian statues spark the tale of Hatshepsut, the queen who defied tradition and her gender to become pharaoh.

What's more, each work of art is described in typical Sister Wendy style. Noting that a delicate porcelain figurine is making an obscene hand gesture, the nun remarks, "I won't sully your ears by telling you what it means, but there are contemporary equivalents." And while admiring an Issey Miyake dress from the 1990s, she concedes, "You won't be surprised to learn that I know absolutely nothing about fashion."

At times, however, the contemplative nun -- who leads a life of complete solitude when not sharing her artistic vocation with television viewers and readers of her many books -- surprises with her commentaries. Describing a 15th-century pitcher that depicts the great Aristotle being played for a fool by a young maiden, Sister Wendy comments, "I defy any feminist not to smile at Phyllis the dominatrix, tugging on Aristotle's beard and patting him condescendingly on the rump!"

Even when presenting well-known artistic treasures, Sister Wendy manages to impart some new and interesting nuggets of information. Who knew that Edward Hopper began painting Nighthawks immediately after the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor, channeling the nation's collective anxiety into his desolate bar scene, or that Grant Wood based his American Gothic farm couple on his sister and his dentist?

Sister Wendy is a treasure trove of such intriguing tidbits, transferring to the viewer both her vast knowledge of art and her awe at the creative spirit that inspired it. "Americans are so lucky to have some of the greatest museums in the world," Sister Wendy says. "I would like to share with people my delight in just a few of the treasures people can find on their own doorsteps."

The Series
Sister Wendy's American Collection is a co-production of WGBH Boston and Spire Films. Jill Janows is series executive producer for WGBH David Willcock is executive producer for Spire Films.

Feedback
Do you have comments on the series or the Web site? We'd like to hear from you. Please e-mail us at [email protected]

The Web Site
The Web site for Sister Wendy's American Collection is www.pbs.org/sisterwendy.

Companion Book
Sister Wendy's American Collection by HarperCollins is available in hardcover at bookstores ($40) and libraries nationwide or by calling HarperCollins at 1-800-242-7737.

Home Videos
Each of the series' six programs is available on home video for $19.95 a boxed set of the complete six-part Sister Wendy's American Collection series is available for $79.95. For additional information or to receive a free catalogue, please call WGBH Boston Video at 800-949-8670.

Accessibility
Sister Wendy's American Collection is closed captioned for deaf and hard-of-hearing viewers by The Caption Center at WGBH Boston. Narrated descriptions are provided by Descriptive Video Service® (DVS®), a national service of WGBH Boston that makes television, cable, and home video programming accessible to people who are blind or visually impaired.


Why Are PCGS Rattler Holders More Desirable?

As we mentioned earlier, PCGS was known for being strict with their grading standards. As more coin grading services came into the fray over the years, the coin grading standards became a little more relaxed within the industry. A coin that used to be graded MS63, now became an MS64.

Collectors realized this and even performed tests. They would purchase a PCGS Rattler coin with a specific grade. They would then crack the coin out of the case and mail it BACK into PCGS without letting PCGS know that the coin was previously graded by them. On multiple accounts (although, not all the time) the coin would come back a full grade higher. After word of these accounts got out, there was a run on PCGS Rattler Cases because collectors thought they could get higher graded coins for the lower graded coins’ price. Some coin dealers, being fully aware of this, started to price old PCGS Rattler Cases higher. (For what it’s worth, Golden Eagle Coins does not price PCGS Rattler Coins any higher)

(Left: A Newer PCGS Holder / Right: A Newer NGC Holder)


Treatment / Management

The appropriate management of a rattlesnake bite should begin in the pre-hospital setting. Facilitate the immediate and rapid transport of the patient for evaluation by a qualified medical provider. If possible, immobilize the extremity to reduce the potential dissemination of venom through the lymphatic system, but this should not delay transport. Patients presenting with a snake bite should be stabilized by initially assessing their airway, breathing, and circulation just like any other trauma situation. Some patients may be able to identify the snake that bit them, but this may not always be accurate. Knowing the common snakes in the locality of the patient may help elucidate the likely culprit. In any case, the treatment algorithm for snake envenomation does not change drastically depending on the snake.[10][11][12][13]

Please refer to the attached unified managementਊlgorithm for a step-by-step approach to crotaline envenomation.[9]

The leading edge of the swelling and redness surrounding the bite site should be marked and tracked every 15 min-30 min. The extremity should be immobilized to reduce motion, and pain should be treated with IV opioids if necessary. Initial labs are necessary for all snake bites and should include coagulation studies, hemoglobin, platelets, creatine kinase, and fibrinogen. Tetanus should be updated if necessary, and the local poison center should be notified.

Signs of envenomation may vary between presentations but should be assessed in all snakebite victims. Systemic signs include hypotension, bleeding, or oozing from IV sites, vomiting, diarrhea, angioedema, and neurotoxicity. Assessment for facial edema including tongue swelling and respiratory distress should be recognized, and a definitive airway should promptlyꂾ obtained if there are concerns for airway compromise.

A patient with minimal signs of envenomation should be monitored for at least eight hours and have a repeat coagulation panel performed to evaluate for delayed coagulopathy before discharge. Patients with progressive swelling, moderate envenomation, or coagulopathy should be given antivenom. In North American there are two Crotalidae Antivenoms approved for use:

Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab Dosing

Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab is derived from 4 snake species (Western Diamondback, Eastern Diamondback, Mojave rattlesnake, and Cottonmouth) and immunized into sheep (ovine-derived). The whole immunoglobin is extracted, affinity purified, and cleaved by papain into the terminal Fab fragment of the immunoglobin. This reduces its size by about 1/3 and allows tissue penetration. However, it is cleared renally, and repeat dosing is usually necessary.

The initial controlling dose consists of਄-6 vials mixed in 250 mL normal saline (NS) administered over one hour (same number of vials for children). Initiate treatmentਊt a rate of 10 mL/hr observing for adverse effects. If none, then increase every few minutes to achieve complete administration in one hour. Observe patientsਏor local swellingਊnd systemic symptoms. If there are signs of progression, then repeat with 4-6 vials over one hour.  Do not administer to try to completely normalize abnormal coagulation markers. Repeat until initial control is achieved (local swelling improves or stops, resolution of systemic signs, and resolution of clinically relevant bleeding). After achieving control, maintenance doses of 2 vials every 6 hours for 18 hours are recommended for rattlesnakes, patients with coagulopathy, and those with severe clinical envenomations. This is not usually required for moderate copperhead envenomations. However, if only a controlling dose is used, close and repeated monitoring for progression is important to decide if any additional doses are required. Remember that if recurrent swelling or coagulopathy occurs during maintenance doses, repeat the initial bolus protocol.

Repeat coagulation panel (PT/PTT/INR), fibrinogen, platelets, and hemoglobin on days 2-3 and days 5-7. Recurrent coagulopathy without clinically significant bleeding has been known to occur. Some repeat and follow parameters to normalization. Indications for repeat dosing if coagulopathy occurs between 3 and 7 days after the last dose of antivenom are:

Crotalidae Immune F(ab)2 Dosing

Crotalidae Immune F(ab)2 is derived from 2 snakes species (Bothris asper and Crotalus duressis) and immunized in horses (equine-derived).  The whole immunoglobin is extracted, purified, and cleaved by pepsin digestion into a fragment with 2 binding sites for venom components - F(ab)2.  Despite being derived from horses it is less immunogenic than the original rattlesnake antivenom produced. It is larger in size than਌rotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab and persists in the serum longer with a more sustained duration of the activity, therefore usually not requiring repeat maintenance dosing.

The initial controlling dose consists of 10 vials mixed in 250 mL normal saline (NS) administered over one hour (same number of vials for children). The initial infusion rate for the first 10 minutes should start at 25 to 50 ml/hr, then if no adverse reaction occurs the remained of the 250 ml solution can be given over 1 hour.[14]

It is best to evaluate the number fo each of the antivenoms available and not mix loading and maintenance doses between the two products.

In rare severe envenomations, a repeat dose of 10 vials of਌rotalidae Immune F(ab)2 may be needed.


Other Historical Events

Floating houses in Manaus, Brazil. Photo credit: shutterstock

Brazil abolished slavery in 1888, the last country in the western world to do so, after an estimated 4 to 5 million African slaves had been imported.
Coffee was introduced to Brazil in 1720 and by the mid 1800’s, Brazil was responsible for half of the world’s coffee production.
1880 to 1920 saw a rubber boom in the Amazon and resulted in the transformation of the village of Manaus into a cosmopolitan centre complete with ornate theatre.

If you are interested in discovering the Afro-Brazilian state of Bahia or the historic gold-mining town of Ouro Preto for example, then Chimu Adventures offers a range of tours to Brazil or can tailor-make a package to suit your travel style. Click here for more information.


Watch the video: トルヒーリョ旅行ガイド. エクスペディア