Jacques Leclerc

Jacques Leclerc

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Jacques Leclerc was born in Picardy, France on 22nd November 1902. He entered St Cyr in 1922 and after graduating was commissioned in the cavalry and saw action in Morocco.

Leclerc remained in the French Army and on the outbreak of the Second World War was a captain in the 4th Division. When the German Army began its Western Offensive Leclerc and his troops moved into Belgium. Serving under General Alphonse Juin, his troops were attacked by General Walther von Reichenau and the 6th Army. Forced to retreat they were pushed back into France.

On 15th June 1940, Leclerc received a serious head wound while fighting at the Aube River and had to be evacuated to a hospital at Tonnerre. He left just before the Germans arrived and managed to escape to Spain. Eventually he joined General Charles De Gaulle in London on 25th July.

After being promoted to the rank of major, he was sent with Free French troops to the Cameroons in August 1940. This small group of men soon overcame all Vichy resistance and the territory was taken from the control of Henri-Philippe Petain.

On 22nd November 1940, De Gaulle appointed Leclerc as military commandant of Chad. Leclerc led his troops on several raids on the Italian Army stationed in neighbouring Libya. This included the capture of Koufa in March 1941.

In November 1941, Charles De Gaulle ordered Leclerc to link up with General Bernard Montgomery and the 8th Army fighting General Erwin Rommel and the Deutsches Afrika Korps. Leclerc's campaign was a great success and he entered Tripoli on 25th January 1943. Now serving under Montgomery, his renamed 2nd French Light Infantry Division took part in the advance on Tunis. On 5th May 1941 Leclerc was appointed commander of the 2nd Armed Division in Morocco.

Leclerc served under General George Patton during the invasion of Normandy. Leclerc fought his way into Paris on 25th August 1944 and later that day accepted the German surrender of the city. He also took part in the advance into Nazi Germany.

After the death of Adolf Hitler and the German surrender, Leclerc was appointed commander-in-chief of French troops fighting the Japanese Army in the Far East. However, soon after arriving in Indochina Japan also surrendered.

Leclerc remained in Saigon until being appointed inspector of land troops in North Africa in February 1947. Jacques Leclerc was killed on 28th November 1947 when his plane crashed while landing at Colomb-Bechar.

Paris is liberated after four years of Nazi occupation

After more than four years of Nazi occupation, Paris is liberated by the French 2nd Armored Division and the U.S. 4th Infantry Division. German resistance was light, and General Dietrich von Choltitz, commander of the German garrison, defied an order by Adolf Hitler to blow up Paris’ landmarks and burn the city to the ground before its liberation. Choltitz signed a formal surrender that afternoon, and on August 26, Free French General Charles de Gaulle led a joyous liberation march down the Champs d𠆞lysees.

Paris fell to Nazi Germany on June 14, 1940, one month after the German Wehrmacht stormed into France. Eight days later, France signed an armistice with the Germans, and a puppet French state was set up with its capital at Vichy. Elsewhere, however, General Charles de Gaulle and the Free French kept fighting, and the Resistance sprang up in occupied France to resist Nazi and Vichy rule.

The French 2nd Armored Division was formed in London in late 1943 with the express purpose of leading the liberation of Paris during the Allied invasion of France. In August 1944, the division arrived at Normandy under the command of General Jacques-Philippe Leclerc and was attached to General George S. Patton’s 3rd U.S. Army. By August 18, Allied forces were near Paris, and workers in the city went on strike as Resistance fighters emerged from hiding and began attacking German forces and fortifications.

At his headquarters two miles inland from the Normandy coast, Supreme Allied Commander Dwight D. Eisenhower had a dilemma. Allied planners had concluded that the liberation of Paris should be delayed so as to not divert valuable resources away from important operations elsewhere. The city could be encircled and then liberated at a later date.

On August 21, Eisenhower met with de Gaulle and told him of his plans to bypass Paris. De Gaulle urged him to reconsider, assuring him that Paris could be reclaimed without difficulty. The French general also warned that the powerful communist faction of the Resistance might succeed in liberating Paris, thereby threatening the re-establishment of a democratic government. De Gaulle politely told Eisenhower that if his advance against Paris was not ordered, he would send Leclerc’s 2nd Armored Division into the city himself.

On August 22, Eisenhower agreed to proceed with the liberation of Paris. The next day, the 2nd Armored Division advanced on the city from the north and the 4th Infantry Division from the south. Meanwhile, in Paris, the forces of German General Dietrich von Choltitz were fighting the Resistance and completing their defenses around the city. Hitler had ordered Paris defended to the last man, and demanded that the city not fall into Allied hands except as 𠇊 field of ruins.” Choltitz dutifully began laying explosives under Paris’ bridges and many of its landmarks, but disobeyed an order to commence the destruction. He did not want to go down in history as the man who had destroyed the 𠇌ity of Light”𠅎urope’s most celebrated city.

The 2nd Armored Division ran into heavy German artillery, taking heavy casualties, but on August 24 managed to cross the Seine and reach the Paris suburbs. There, they were greeted by enthusiastic civilians who besieged them with flowers, kisses, and wine. Later that day, Leclerc learned that the 4th Infantry Division was poised to beat him into Paris proper, and he ordered his exhausted men forward in a final burst of energy. Just before midnight on August 24, the 2nd Armored Division reached the Hótel de Ville in the heart of Paris.

German resistance melted away during the night. Most of the 20,000 troops surrendered or fled, and those that fought were quickly overcome. On the morning of August 25, the 2nd Armored Division swept clear the western half of Paris while the 4th Infantry Division cleared the eastern part. Paris was liberated.

In the early afternoon, Choltitz was arrested in his headquarters by French troops. Shortly after, he signed a document formally surrendering Paris to de Gaulle’s provisional government. De Gaulle himself arrived in the city later that afternoon. On August 26, de Gaulle and Leclerc led a triumphant liberation march down the Champs d𠆞lysees. Scattered gunfire from a rooftop disrupted the parade, but the identity of the snipers was not determined.

De Gaulle headed two successive French provisional governments until 1946, when he resigned over constitutional disagreements. From 1958 to 1969, he served as French president under the Fifth Republic.

François le Clerc

François or Francis Le Clerc, known as "Jambe de Bois" ("Peg Leg"), (died 1563) was a 16th-century French privateer, originally from Normandy. He is credited as the first pirate in the modern era to have a "peg leg".

He was often the first to board an enemy vessel during an attack or raid. It was this brazen style that eventually caused him to suffer the loss of a leg and severe damage to one arm while fighting the English at Guernsey in 1549. Although many pirates would have had their careers ended by such an injury, le Clerc refused to retire and instead expanded the scope of his piracy by financing the voyages and attacks of other pirates as well.

Despite his wounds, Le Clerc led major raids against the Spanish, who nicknamed him "Pata de Palo" ("Peg Leg"). In 1553, he assumed overall command of seven pirate craft and three royal vessels, the latter commanded by himself, Jacques de Sores and Robert Blundel. This same year he attacked the port of Santa Cruz de La Palma, in the Canary Islands, which he looted and set on fire, destroying a large number of buildings.

This strong fleet raided San Germán in Puerto Rico and methodically looted the ports of Hispaniola and Cuba from south to north, stealing hides and cannon as they traveled. They sacked Santiago de Cuba in 1554, [1] occupied it for a month, and left with 80,000 pesos in treasure. So completely devastated was Cuba's first capital that it was soon completely eclipsed by Havana and never recovered its former prosperity.

Richer booty was taken on the return voyage as the corsairs plundered Las Palmas on Grand Canary Island and captured a Genoese carrack.

He and his crew of 330 men were the first Europeans to settle the island of Saint Lucia, and used the nearby Pigeon Island to target Spanish treasure galleons. [2]

In 1560, while awaiting a Spanish treasure fleet carrying a cargo of bullion, he caused a great deal of damage to settlements along the coast of Panama.

In April 1562, Protestants in several Norman cities rebelled against their Roman Catholic king. Queen Elizabeth I of England dispatched British troops to occupy Le Havre until June 1563. Le Clerc joined the English invaders and ravaged French shipping. In March 1563, he asked for a large pension as a reward for his actions. Wounded in his pride when Elizabeth turned down his request, he sailed for the Azores Islands. He was killed there in 1563, while hunting down Spanish treasure ships.

A point in history.

A romanticized depiction of Trois-Rivières c. 1700 by James Pichy.

A translation of what Champlain noted in 1609 upon seeing Trois-Rivières.

". Trois-Rivières is a passage. All the terrain that I see is sandy. elevated enough and covered with pines and evergreens along the edge of the river. . "

It was also a stopping place for Algonquins.

It would seem any history of Trois-Rivières would have to include the people who occupied the land for centuries prior to Europeans arriving on the continent.

When Jacques Cartier travelled up the St. Lawrence River and planted a cross in 1535 on what would become called Île Saint-Quentin, he was met by the people who had always been there. likely Algonquins. In 1603, someone estimated that the combined population of the various Algonquin tribes was somewhere in the neighborhood of 6,000.

From the start, it was understood by Champlain that an alliance with the native people was necessary for success in the fur trade . French interpreters working for companies like the 100 Associates spent years living among these people learning their language. A well-known ancestor, Jean Nicolet de Belleborne was among them.

Author Thomas Costain summed up the colony as such.

'This small settlement had become the meeting ground of the hardy spirits who had an itching of the foot, the coureurs de bois. Québec was the port, the administrative center of New France: Montréal was a brave experiment, an outpost existing in a state of spiritual fervor Trois-Rivières was the starting point of exploration. Woodsmen had fallen into the habit of making it their winter quarters.'

Source: " The White and the Gold -- The French Regime in Canada " by Thomas B. Costain.

1541 : Jacques Cartier, while looking for gold and diamonds, found "a fine mine of the best iron ore in the world. " However, it would be another 200 years before Canada's iron ore mines were actually worked. Politics and economics continually got in the way.

1617-1618 : Samuel de Champlain, projected an optimistic 1 million livres in revenues from the iron deposits found in the area.

1634 : Under the orders of Champlain, LaViolette travels to the mouth of the Saint-Maurice River to found a fur trading post and build a fort on 'le Platon', a plateau situated on a hillock of land along the St. Lawrence River. The fort would enclose a few homes and shops, and the settlement would become known as Trois-Rivières. For a long time, this site will be one of the most advantageous for the activities of fur traders.

Seigneuries were created… such as the fief Hertel in 1633 , the Jesuits fief in 1634 and the fief Godefroy de Lintot in 1637 among others. However, despite a few attempts, no one inhabited the seigneuries because of the Iroquois problem.

Between 1634-84 at least four chapels were built under the direction of the Jesuits. The first one, as described by them, was ". nothing but a few wooden logs joined together, covered with a little soil and grass. " The first missionary of the three rivers region was Father Jacques Buteaux, who arrived in September 1634 accompanied by Father Le Jeune. In 1639 , he was made Superior of the congregation. Some Montagnais and Algonquins had settled nearby on Cap-de-la-Madeleine which Father Buteaux encouraged because he wanted the presence of an agricultural community and felt they would also provide some protection against the Iroquois. Champlain had told him that some men from Trois Rivières could be used to work alongside the Amerindians to clear and cultivate the land. Conflicts arose with M. de la Potherie, the Governor of Trois Rivières, for he was of a different mind. Since Jacques Buteaux had the rights to the land, he prevailed, and in 1649 , in the name of the Jesuits, he officially conceded the land to his chosen settlers. Among the 14 men picked to settle the Cap-de-la Madeleine region were Pierre Guillet and his brother, Mathurin, also ancestor, Jacques Aubuchon. In 1651 , a notarized act confirmed these concessions. Father Buteaux was killed by the Iroquois in May of 1652,

Between the years 1648-51 , forty or so colonists, some with their families, did establish themselves at Trois-Rivières. They enclosed the town in a stone palissade. In 1663 , a map shows 50 or so lots. But it wasn't until the end of 1663 with the dismissal of the Company of 100 Associates, the oversight of King Louis XIV in establishing New France as a Royal colony instead of a fur-trading colony, and the arrival in 1665 of the Carignan-Salières Regiment, that the population was able to increase. A renewed interest in iron mining was displayed by the Crown.

When the 1666 census was taken at the end of July, Trois-Rivières had a population of 602, Montréal 760 and Québec 2,857, for a total of 4,219 people in Canada. The average age of the habitants of the Trois-Rivières region was approximately 13 years old. ( Source: " La population du Canada en 1666 " by Marcel Trudel and published by " Les éditions du Septentrion ", Sillery (Québec), PQ, Canada)

In 1704 , new fortifications were built to protect the habitants from the incessant Iroquois raids. Twenty-eight houses were within the fortifications, and several others were built on the edge of the river. A windmill, situated nearby, served to grind the grain and also as a shelter in case of attack.

In 1730, the iron works, des Forges du Saint-Maurice , were started. With this, Trois-Rivières became Canada's first industrial area. In 1738, the forge was producing iron bar and castings such as pots, utensils and stoves from high-quality iron ore extracted from the surrounding bogs and swamps.

. iron ore .. . being loaded on a cart.

An imaginary scenario:

If in 1666, one could gather around a table all of the heads of families from the Trois-Rivières region who were my ancestors one would have ( age according to the census ):

65 year-old Michel LeNeuf from Normandy , a seigneur, sitting beside his brother-in-law.

58 year-old Jean Godefroy also from Normandy , another seigneur

46 year-old Antoine Desrosiers from Lyonnais, a carpenter and son-in-law of Michel LeNeuf

32 year-old Pierre Boulanger from Normandy, a corporal in the Carignan-Salières Regiment newly arrived in Canada the previous year. In a few years he would become the son-in-law of Jean Godefroy.

36 year-old Marie Boucher from Normandy, widow of Étienne de la Fond

36 year-old Claude Jutral (Jutras) dit Lavalée from Paris, a habitant

43 year-old Jacques Aubuchon from Normandy, widowed master carpenter living with his 5 sons and one domestic.

30 year-old Louis Tetreau from Poitou, a habitant

44 year-old Quentin Moral from Lorraine, seigneur de St. Quentin, and his wife Marie Marguerie.

38 year-old Jacques Ménard dit LaFontaine from Poitou, habitant

42 year-old Étienne Gelineau (Gelinas dit Bellemère) from Saintonge, a widower living with his son, Jean. both carpenters

30 year-old Jean Cusson from Normandy, a notary

30 year-old Louis Pinard from LaRochelle, a master surgeon, a son-in-law of Marie Marguerie.

40 year-old Pierre Guillet dit La Jeunesse from LaRochelle, a carpenter living with his wife and ten children, plus one domestic

36 year-old Michel Lemay from Anjou, a habitant and eel fisherman

50 year-old Pierre Lefebvre from Paris, a habitant

Several ancestors were immersed in the fur trade. for many it was their only reason for being in New France. Trois-Rivières was the area they chose as a base, and in time, plant a garden and raise some children. and their many of sons would follow suit. The business of voyageur and coureurs de bois was a young man's game, after all.

Thirty-three ancestral families in all who fought, intermarried, lived and died dependent on one another. Some were landed gentry from Normandy, a couple were notaries, about eight were soldiers, others were contract workers and fur traders.

BELLEMÈRE , Étienne. can also be Gélinas or Gélineau dit Bellemère. A widower, he arrived in Canada with his 12-year-old son, Jean. Étienne Gelinas was 34. He had been recruited/contracted by Pierre Boucher in LaRochelle, France May 11, 1658. Bellemère was a carpenter and wood carver.

BOULANGER , Pierre. dit names LeBoulanger or St. Pierre. Boulanger was a merchant and a corporal in the Carignan Regiment. He arrived in Canada in 1665. Around that time, he testified, along with Jacques Aubuchon, against Madame Crevier that she sold alcohol to Indians. A serious offense at that time. In 1667, Boulanger took part in an inquest concerning the traficking of alcohol with the Indians. In 1677, he married Marie-Renée Godefroy.

BOURGIS , Jean-Baptiste. also can be spelled Bougery. Bourgis left France with his wife, Marie Gendre, and 6-year old son from the port of LaRochelle in 1650. He died in 1657 in Trois-Rivières. Daughter, Marie Bourgis, who was born in Trois-Rivières, married Louis Robert in January of 1666. Four of her sons, Pierre, François, Jean-Baptiste and Jacques Robert were all involved in the fur trade.

BOUTON , Antoine. signed up from LaRochelle, France, for passage (engagé) to Canada in June 1698. He was a sheetmetal worker, a blacksmith and a laborer. He appears to have been in Trois-Rivières as a settler and farmer. In 1732, he sold a garden situated in the lower town of Trois-Rivières to Pierre Lefebvre, a master butcher. On the 5th of October 1734, he sold land measuring 3 arpents (approx. 2-1/2 acres) of frontage at the fief of Tonnacour to ancestor Michel Girard of the same fief.

DUBOIS, Antoine. was from Saintes, Saintonge, France where he was born around 1648. He probably arrived in Canada as a contract worker sometime after 1666 since he doesn't appear on the Talon census of that year. In November of 1682, he married Marie-Marthe Moral, the daughter of Quentin Moral and Marie Marguerie, in Trois-Rivières. In doing so, he married into a family of fur traders and merchants. Their youngest daughter, Marie-Claude Dubois, born about 1693 is an ancestor.

DUCLOS , François. left the Calvados region of Normandy for Canada around 1665 where he married a fille-du-roi, Jeanne Cerisler from Touraine, in November 1665. She was 24, he was 38. The family is listed on the 1666 Talon census as living in the Trois-Rivières area. At the time, he was a volunteer and a habitant. They did not appear on the original census, but on the reconstructed census. In time, t wo of their sons, Nicolas and Charles were involved in the fur trade. Charles, however, died young at the age of 20.

DUREAU , Pierre. whose dit name was Poiteven arrrived in Canada before 1707 as a sergeant in the company Saint-Martin des troupes de la marine (colonial troops). Pierre Dureau was baptized in the parish of Saint-Paul de Poitiers in Poitou, France. He married Marguerite Gélinas dit Bellemère in September of 1707 in Trois-Rivières. Their oldest daughter, Louise Thérèse married Pierre Desrosiers dit Dargie in 1728. It appears that Pierre Dureau and Marguerite Gélinas spent their lives in Trois-Rivieres as settlers and farmers.

FOUBERT , Phillippe. a furniture maker, was first mentioned as being in Canada in 1649. He was from Rouen, Normandy and he arrived in Nouvelle France as a emigrant and not a contract worker. His wife and daughter perhaps did not accompany him at the time because there was another daughter, possibly sickly, who died in France in September of 1655 at the age of 8. It appears his wife, Marie Jeffine Rivières, arrived in Canada in the summer of 1656 with a 16-year old daughter. In September of 1656, his daughter Marie married Jean Cusson , who would become a notary in the area. On the census of 1666, Phillippe Foubert he is listed as deceased, and his widow has moved into the Cusson household with her daughter. Records indicate that he died sometime before 1662 at the age of about 50.

GIRARD , François. was born in Canada in 1673, the son of Pierre Girard dit Guilbert, a mariner in 1669 and Suzanne DeLaVoye who had arrived in Canada around 1666. In July 1703, François Girard was granted a coveted congé or passport to travel west. The west, in this case, was probably no further than the Great Lakes. To control the fur trade and collect appropriate taxes, the French government issued passports (permits), which were a form of license. They were difficult to acquire since in many years only 25 were issued. To conduct fur trading or to travel west without a passport was considered illegal and subject to punishment, most often in the form of fines or confiscation of furs. When François Girard married Canadian-born Antoinette LeMay around 1709, he was marrying into a well known fur-trading family. Their oldest son Joseph, married to Marie-Anne Vanasse is an ancestor.

LECLERC, Florent. was born around 1619 in the hamlet of Bray-sous-Faye, Angers, Anjou. In April 1656, he signed up to travel to Canada from LaRochelle, France, no doubt as a contract worker.

In February 1658, Florent LeClerc married the widow of Jean-Baptiste Bourgis, Marie Gendre, at Trois-Rivières. She brought four children to the marriage, the youngest being 2 years old. Her daughter, Marie Bourgis married to Louis Robert, is an ancestor. Jean-Baptiste Bourgis had died in Trois-Rivières in November of 1657.

Marie Gendre, born around 1622, was from the village of Sugères in LaRochelle, Aunis. After her marriage to Florent LeClerc she had three more children. Son Jean LeClerc dit Blondin, married to Marie-Claire Loiseau dit Francoeur, is an ancestor. Marie Gendre's sons with Florent LeClerc were fur traders. In May 1690, Jean LeClerc dit Blondin received a permit from the French government to travel to the Great Lakes. In June of 1695, he headed up an expedition for travel to the west. His elder brother, Florent also received a permit in June 1695, probably he was part of the expedition. Jean LeClerc was also a respected canon maker.

Florent LeClerc died in Trois-rivières in December of 1664.

Marie Gendre remarried two more times, in 1667 and again in 1669. She died in Trois-Rivières in 1699.

LeNEUF , Michel (Michel LeNeuf du Hérisson)

LOISEAU, Pierre. This individual arrived in 1665 as a soldier in the Carignan-Salières Regiment. In a roster of soldiers, he is listed as Pierre LOZOULT dit LaTour, with the Loubias cie. Various spellings of his name can be Lozault, Lozeau or Lozeaux. He was able to sign his name. In 1671, he was a soldier of the Trois Rivieres garrison, he was also a farmer for sieur ancestor, Godefroy de Lintot.

Pierre Loiseau was born in the parish of St. Maurille, Angers, Anjou, France about 1637 . First mention of him in Canada is 9-21-1671 in Trois Rivières at the writing of his marriage contract to the widow, Jeanne-Léonarde GENEST. She had arrived in Canada in 1669 from Nivernais, France, as a fille-du-roi where in November of the same year she married Noël Cardin in the region of Trois-Rivières.

In 1681, the family was living in the Lower Town (basse ville) of Québec.

The daughter of Pierre Loiseau and Jeanne-Léonarde Genest, named Marie-Claire Loiseau married to Jean LeClerc in 1689 is an ancestor.

MORAL , Quentin. who, during his lifetime, was a judge and a civil and criminal lieutenant for the king in Trois-Rivières. His exact arrival date in Canada is unknown but it could have been around 1645. He was born in a village called St. Quentin in Lorraine, France about 1620. In approximately 1652, he married the widow of Jacques Hertel . The woman was Marie Marguerie, sister of the well-respected interpreter and fur trader, François Marguerie. Marie Marguerie inherited land on the island called l'Île de la Trinité from her brother, François when he died in 1648. After the Moral-Marguerie marriage, the island was renamed l'Île Saint-Quentin. Besides land, Marie Marguerie brought three young children to the marriage, aged 10 to 3.

On 17 November 1663, Quentin Moral was appointed royal notary but does not seem to have taken up the office, which was entrusted a year laber to Séverin Ameau.

The 1666 census indicated the family was living in the Québec area.

Quentin Moral Sr de st quentin - 44 habitant
Marie Marguerise (Marguerie) - 40 sa femme
Jeanne Moral - 13 fille
Marie Moral - 10 fille
jertrude moral - 8 fille
Marthe Moral - 5 fille
Robert henry - 20 domestique
Nicolas dupuis - 24 domestique

Source for the above listing: website Alberta Family Histories Society

In 1669, Quentin Moral made a concession of 3 arpents of land to Antoine Desrosiers in Trois-Rivières. At the time, Quentin Moral was seigneur of the property, 'L'Arbre-à-la-Croix' in Trois-Rivières.

Quentin Moral died in Trois-Rivières in 1686, his wife outlived him by 14 years.

NIQUET , Pierre-René. arrived in Canada about 1664 from the Saintonge region of France where he had been born around 1642. Niquet married a fille-du-roi, Françoise Lemoine in June of 1666 at Cap-de-la-Madeleine. She had arrived in Canada the previous year from Paris. The couple had 11 children. One son, Jean Niquet received a permit in 1694 to travel west to the Great Lakes region for the purpose of fur trading. A daughter, Marie Niquet married to Dominique Jutras in 1684 is an ancestor in the Cameron line.

A snapshot of the 1666 census of the Trois-Rivières area indicates:

Pierre niquet - 24 habitant
françoise lemoyne - 22 sa femme

This family was in Champlain, P.Q. in 1681.

ROBERT, Louis. whose dit name is LaPommeraye and LaFontaine, arrived in Canada in 1665 as part of the Carignan-Salières Regiment, Laubia Company. He sailed out of the port La Rochelle on the 'Le Saint-Sébastien', a 250-ton ship which carried the companies: DePortes (Duprat), Dugué and La Varenne as well as Laubia. Louis Robert had been baptized in the parish of Ste. Marguerite de LaRochelle in Aunis, France in 1638.

First mention of Louis Robert in Canada is 11-12-1665 at Trois Rivières where is a witness to the marriage contract between Nicolas Masson and Marie Gendre. In November of 1666, he married Canadian-born 12-year old, Marie Bourgis in Trois-Rivières. Because of her age, Marie Bourgis undoubtedly remained with her parents until the end of 1670. The first child of Louis Robert and Marie Bourgis was born in September of 1671. This child Pierre Robert was a fur trader who in May of 1694 and June of 1706, received permission to travel west to the Great Lakes region. On 9-16-1712, he sponsored a fur trading expedition. Pierre Robert, along with his younger brothers, François, Jean-Baptiste and ancestor Jacques were all envolved in one way or another with the fur trade. Jacques Robert who used the did name LaFontaine, was granted permission to travel to the Great Lakes 3-19-1715 and 5-18-1717.

Louis Robert and Marie Bourgis would have eleven children, including a set of twin boys. One of the twins, Jacques Robert is an ancestor in the Cameron line.

The 1666 census indicates Louis Robert was living in the Trois-Rivières area of Québec as a bachelor and a habitant. In time, he would become a cobbler and shoemaker.

TÉTREAU, Louis. arrived in Canada from Poitou sometime before the summer of 1663 when he married the widow, Nathalie Landreu. Her first marriage had taken place in August 1659 in Trois-Rivières. It appears as if she was part of the recruitment initiative known as filles à marier whereby women in France contracted to marry settlers in Canada. Nathalie Landreu has one daughter in April 1662 in Trois-Rivières with her first husband, Jean Baudouin. Louis Tétreau and Nathalie Landreu, together, had nine children. Their oldest son, Claude Tétreau, born in 1666 was killed by the Iroquois in September 1695. He was 29 years old.

Louis Tetreau was listed on the 1666 census as living in the Trois-Rivières area as a habitant. A snapshot of the census listing is as follows:

Louis tettreau - 30 habitant
noelle Landreau - 30 sa femme ve de Beaudouin
Magdelaine Beaudoin - 3 fille
Marie tettreau - 2 fille
Jacques Boissonet - 21 domestique
Jean monet - 19 domestique

Source for the above listing: website Alberta Family Histories Society

Two of Louis Tétreau and Noëlle Landrau's son, Daniel and Joseph-Marie Tétreau are ancestors in the Cameron line.

Leclerc Accessories

Horizontal Warping Mill

Status: No Longer Produced
Features: Warping Mill with built-in counter to measure and then warp the loom directly.
Estimated Age: Initially appeared between 1953 and 1955 and then discontinued in late 1969.

Leclerc Spinning Wheels

Status: No Longer Produced
Features: A number of models were manufactered by Leclerc over the years. Everything we know about them is on our Leclerc Spinning Wheel Information Page.

Other Leclerc Manuals

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Jacques Leclerc: Hero of the Free French Forces in World War II

Free French forces under General Jacques Leclerc upheld the honor of France during World War II.

Leclerc branded the new division with his forceful personality, and he was a rigorous taskmaster. Impassioned, selfless, and impetuous, he drove everyone hard—rebels and adventurers, cowards and shirkers—until the division, known as Deuxième DB to all who belonged to it, was judged combat ready by the Allied Supreme Headquarters on the eve of D-Day, the June 6, 1944, invasion of Normandy. On August 1, General Leclerc proudly led his division across the English Channel to serve under General George S. Patton, Jr., commander of the U.S. Third Army.

As a component of Maj. Gen. Wade H. Haislip’s U.S. XV Corps, the French 2nd Armored Division’s M-4 Sherman medium tanks, tank destroyers, and artillery pieces became heavily engaged for two furious weeks around Alencon and Argentan on the southern flank of the Falaise pocket. The division proved to be a skillful and flexible combat formation and was poised to link up with Canadian and Polish units at Chambois when it was switched eastward because of a change of mind on the part of General Omar N. Bradley, the cautious, hesitant commander of the U.S. Twelfth Army Group. The Free French division laagered in open country south of Argentan, and its leader chafed for more action.

The Orders to Liberate Paris

Early on the evening of August 22, Bradley transmitted an order to Leclerc from General Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Allied supreme commander, directing the 2nd Armored Division to attempt the liberation of Paris. Leclerc had been dreaming of this opportunity for some time. After initially shunning Paris as a military objective, Ike had agreed to it and believed that its liberation by a French unit would be appropriate.

By now attached to Maj. Gen. Leonard T. Gerow’s U.S. V Corps, the French tankers were to receive support from elements of Maj. Gen. Raymond O. “Tubby” Barton’s U.S. 4th Infantry Division, which had landed at Utah Beach on D-Day. Bradley, who viewed Leclerc as “a magnificent tank commander,” told him in his high-pitched Missouri twang, “I want you to remember one thing above all: I don’t want any fighting in Paris itself. It’s the only order I have for you. At no cost is there to be heavy fighting in Paris.” Bradley had recently witnessed the devastation in and around Saint Lo.

Leclerc was jubilant at the prospect of leading his armor into the capital, which had been under the Nazi heel for more than four years. De Gaulle, who had just established himself in the French president’s spacious, opulent country residence at Rambouillet, endorsed the order and planned to follow the division to Paris.

At first light on the morning of August 23, 1944, blue fumes filtered the clear air across the orchards south of Argentan as 16,000 men and their 2,000 throbbing Sherman tanks, tank destroyers, Stuart light tanks, half-tracks, field gun units, armored scout cars, and jeeps stood on the line of departure near the village of Ecouche. Painted proudly on the side hulls of the Shermans and tank destroyers were blue Crosses of Lorraine and the names of French cities, battles, and winds: Evreux, Lisieux, Cherbourg, Rennes, Romilly, Montmirail, Champaubert, Douaumont, Mort-Homme, Bourrasque, Astral, Ouragon, Sirocco…. Reclaiming the honor of France was the mission of Leclerc’s ironsides.

With the feisty little general riding point in a jeep, the division moved out at dawn in three columns along a front 17 miles wide, heading for the southwestern corner of Paris. The French armor thundered in a breakneck drive along narrow departmental roads through Sees, Mortagne, La Loup, and Maintenon. A lashing rainstorm could not dash the ardor of the Free French liberators.

“Take Whatever You’ve Got and Go!”

By mid afternoon on August 23, Leclerc reached Rambouillet, 28 miles southwest of Paris. There, he dashed into the chateau to pay his respects to General de Gaulle, who was killing time with English cigarettes and a volume of Molière discreetly borrowed from the chateau library. Confidently, the two warriors agreed to rendezvous two days later at the Gare Montparnasse in Paris.

Leclerc moved his division out again in three columns at dawn on Thursday, August 24, in a steady drizzle. Growing throngs of well wishers ran out on the roads and slowed the troops’ progress, and even the dour general was caught up in the excitement.

A few hours later, the 2nd Armored Division ran into the outer Paris defenses. The weather was wet and overcast, with no recourse to aerial support. At three locations, about 200 deadly German 88mm guns and concealed Tiger tanks opened up on Leclerc’s armor, causing severe losses. Several Shermans were set afire, and for four hours dismounted half-track crews stalked enemy antitank guns and 20mm cannons behind hedges and in orchards. “The firing seemed to go on all day,” reported one tank crewman. Leclerc was now having to fight his way into the city, and his confident prediction of an early arrival was in doubt. But he and his men were determined to get there at any cost.

At about 7:30 pm, while still 10 miles from Paris, Leclerc was met on the roadside by red-bearded Captain Raymond Dronne, the commander of a detachment of three Shermans and six half-tracks, who had been trying to locate a gap in the enemy defense lines. “I want you to go into Paris,” Leclerc ordered him. “Take whatever you’ve got and go! Forget about fighting the Germans. Tell them (the Parisians) to hold on we’re coming tomorrow!”

Perched in the turret of a Sherman named Romilly, Dronne led his little force off, found a gap, and at 9:22 pm clanked to a halt outside the Hotel de Ville in the heart of Paris. Captain Dronne’s three tanks—named Romilly, Montmirail, and Champaubert for Napoleonic victories of 1814—stood within a few hundred yards of the Hotel Meurice, the occupation headquarters of General Dietrich von Choltitz, commandant of Paris.

Victory in Paris

Then, between 8 and 10:30 on the historic morning of Friday, August 25, 1944, General Leclerc and his division rolled into the capital from the south and west, closely followed by troops of the U.S. 4th Infantry Division to the north. By 2 pm on that unforgettable day, German resistance had ended in the French capital. Swastika flags were hauled down from hotels and public buildings, and huge Tricolors hung from the Arc de Triomphe and the Eiffel Tower. Paris had never seen such a day of joyful pandemonium. People swarmed around the Allied vehicles, showering the weary, grimy soldiers with flowers, fruit, chocolate, and long-hoarded bottles of fine wine and champagne.

Riding alternately in an armored scout car and a command car, General Leclerc pushed through the teeming streets, first to the Gare Montparnasse, where he set up his divisional headquarters, and then to the Préfecture of Police. While lunching there with Resistance leaders, he was interrupted by a messenger with momentous news. After a sharp fight at the Hotel Meurice, General von Choltitz had been captured.

After being cursed and spat upon by indignant Parisians, the German general was hurried in a French half-track to the préfecture. In the police billiard room there, the pudgy von Choltitz—stiff, sweating in his dress uniform, and escorted by 20 gendarmes—was met by a more informal Leclerc, who wore a dirty khaki shirt, GI boots, and no decorations for the historic encounter. At 3:15 pm, the French officer formally accepted von Choltitz’s surrender in the name of the French government.

About an hour later, General de Gaulle rode into Paris in a black Hotchkiss convertible. Inching through cheering crowds, he went into the baggage room at the Gare Montparnasse to congratulate Leclerc and his staff and to read the text of von Choltitz’s surrender.

Roaring Ahead with Patton’s Third Army

After its momentous entry into the French capital, General Leclerc’s division refitted, rearmed, refueled, and headed eastward to Alsace and Lorraine with General Patton’s freewheeling Third Army while the British and Canadian armies were slugging it out against the bulk of the enemy panzer formations in Normandy. The Free French tankers were by now famous among the Allied forces for their dash and courage. Leclerc himself was highly respected by the Americans for his driving, no-nonsense style, while his men were feared by the enemy because they sometimes exacted revenge for the humiliation of 1940 by summarily shooting German soldiers they found along the way.

The 2nd Armored Division was attached to General Haislip’s XV Corps on September 29, 1944, and it then joined Lt. Gen. Alexander M. “Sandy” Patch’s U.S. Seventh Army in Alsace with the objective of the Rhine River. The going was slow and the fighting brutal, but by mid-November, the Seventh Army was poised on the eastern slopes of the rugged Vosges Mountains and struggling to break out onto the Alsace plain. General Leclerc was now close to fulfilling the pledge he had made at Kufra more than three years before—the liberation of Strasbourg.

The Capture of Strasbourg

On November 22, Generals Patch and Haislip ordered Leclerc to advance on Strasbourg. He needed no second bidding. At 7:30 the following morning, his tankers saddled up and moved out hastily across the storm-sodden Alsace plain. Brushing aside enemy roadblocks and pockets of resistance, four task forces of the 2nd Armored rolled toward Strasbourg. All eyes were on the lookout for the spires of the 12th century city’s great cathedral.

Maliseet & Micmac Acadian-Indian Vital Statistics

Agamabiche, Jean Baptiste
Baptized: 1807.1.25
Age/Birthdate: 1806.12
Parents: Laurent Agamabiche and Marie Genevieve Godin
Priest: MA Amiot
Register: St. Basile, Madawaska
Witnesses: Nicolas Godin and Marie Michel
Notes: ‘sauvages’
Source: 190, — , F1730

Albert, Louis Married: 1816.7.8
Priest: L Marcoux
Register: Ste. Anne, Fredericton
Parents / Former Spouse: s/o late Noel Albert and Judith Trentans, Ursule
Parents / Former Spouse: d/o Joseph Trentans and Marie
Witnesses: Joseph Marie and Michel Louis Paul Cir and Noel Cyr
Notes: ‘sauvages’
Source: 97, M2, F1732

Basque, Agnes
Baptized: 1818.9.6
Age/Birthdate: 1 mo
Parents: Joseph Basque and Marguerite
Priest: A Gagnon
Register: St. Charles, L’Ardoine
Witnesses: Noel and Marguerite
Notes: ‘mikmaques’
Source: 58, B7, F1732

Basque, Jacques
Baptized: 1823.7.19
Age/Birthdate: 6 mos
Parents: Louis Basque and Marie Henriette Clement
Priest: L Gingras
Register: St. Thomas, Memramcook
Witnesses: Gabriel Bonis and Therese Marie Joseph
Notes: ‘sauvages’
Source: 117, B44, F1731

________, Bernard
Baptized: 1771.4.25
Age/Birthdate: 1768.2.7
Parents: Chrystophte(sic) Lejeune Briard and Louise Galand Ste. Anne de Restigouche, Caraquet
Witnesses: Etienne and Marie Anne Bouche
Notes: baptized at Petite Bras Dor, Cape Breton, ‘Indian’
Source: 47, — , F1733

Bernard, Gregoire Married: 1867.9.10
Priest: J Coyne
Register: St. Thomas, Memramcook
Parents / Former Spouse: s/o Peter Bernard and Angelique Gourg Shaque, Marie Anne
Parents / Former Spouse: d/o Noel Shaque and Marie Anne Noocoot
Witnesses: Charles Knowl (sic) and Henriette Bernard
Notes: Bernard family is Micmac
Source: 637, M7, F1731

Bernard, Judith
Baptized: 1822.1.9
Age/Birthdate: 1822.11.1
Parents: Pierre Bernard and Marie Pelagie
Priest: FN Blanchet
Register: St. Louis de Kent
Witnesses: Ambroise Basque and Marie Monique
Notes: ‘sauvages’ from Richibucto, Ambroise from Cape Breton
Source: 71, B1, F1674

Bernard, Marguerite Pierre Jacques
Died: ‘la surveille’
Age/Birthdate: 44 yrs Buried: 1847.6.11
Priest: A Langevin
Register: St. Basile, Madawaska w/o Louis Bernard
Witnesses: Frederic Martin and Pierre Martin
Notes: ‘sauvagesse’
Source: 1882, S21, F1731

Bernard, Marie Ursule Married: 1829.11.10
Priest: F Sirois
Register: St. Basile, Madawaska
Parents / Former Spouse: Louis Bernard and late Cecile Denis Thomas, Etienne
Parents / Former Spouse: widower of Marie Cecile Charles Laurent
Witnesses: Noel Thomas(brother), Michel Mercure, Louis Bernard and Michel Cyr
Notes: ‘sauvages’
Source: 876, M19, F1730

Brooks, Leo
Baptized: 1894.1.22
Age/Birthdate: 1894.1.17
Parents: Solomon Brooks and Mary Acquin
Priest: J Kiernan
Register: St. Anthony’s, Fredericton
Witnesses: Joseph Paul and Bessie Acquin
Notes: of St. Mary’s Reserve
Source: 23, — , F1225

Caplan, Georges
Baptized: 1904.1.30
Age/Birthdate: 1903.12.30
Parents: Louis Caplan and Madeleine Sook
Priest: A Trudel
Register: St. Augustine, Paquetville
Witnesses: Tranquille Hache and Rose Theriault
Notes: ‘tous deux de la nation de Sauvages’
Source: 116, B8, F1466

Capland, Marie Pelagie
Baptized: 1855.7.22
Age/Birthdate: 1 mo
Parents: Joseph Capland and Marie Marchand
Priest: N Audet
Register: Ste. Anne de Restigouche, Bonaventure
Witnesses: François Pierre and Louise Marchand
Notes: ‘indienne’
Source: 3, B11, F8443

_______, Cecile
Baptized: 1769.8.6
Age/Birthdate: 4 yrs
Parents: Charles Reireche(sic) and Marie Magdeleine
Priest: CF Bailly
Register: Ste. Anne de Restigouche, Carquet
Witnesses: Joseph Mius and Agnes Belivaux
Notes: ‘mikmaks’ from Cap de Sable
Source: 17, — , F1733

Clermont, Anastasie Married: 1842.8.5
Priest: A Gagnon
Register: Notre Dame de la Visitation, Grand Digue
Parents / Former Spouse: widow of Etienne Claude — , Louis François
Parents / Former Spouse: widower of Marie Monique
Witnesses: Eustache and Moyse Hache
Notes: Louis an ‘Indian vagabond’ from NS, Anastasie an ‘Indienne’
Source: 65, M3, F1730

________, Clotilde
Baptized: 1816.12.24
Age/Birthdate: 3 wks
Parents: Thomas and Marie Nocoute
Priest: A Gagnon
Register: St. Henri, Barachois
Witnesses: Maximin Galant and Louise Hache
Notes: ‘sauvagesse’ from Naboujagan
Source: 8, B22, F1729

Cloud, Anne
Baptized: 1841.7.29
Age/Birthdate: 1841.7.28
Parents: Cain Cloud and Magdalen Dubois
Priest: M Egan
Register: St. Bernard, Neguac
Witnesses: Luis Pier Paul and Angelick Cloud
Source: 47, B6, F1731

Indian Chief, Lindsay Cyr [left]

Pasqua Indian Band, Saskatchewan

Dedame, Marie
Baptized: 1855.12.13
Age/Birthdate: 1855.3.11
Parents: Jean Baptiste Dedame and Marie Marshand
Priest: N Audet
Register: Ste. Anne de Restigouche, Bonaventure
Witnesses: François Marchand and Angelique Marchand
Notes: ‘indien’
Source: 2, B3, F8443

Denys, Louis Married: 1832.8.7
Priest: R Mercier
Register: St. Basile, Madawaska
Parents / Former Spouse: François Denys and ‘veuf de’ Marie Jean Jacques, Josephte
Parents / Former Spouse: late Jean Jacques and Marie Bernard
Witnesses: Michel Cyr and Pierre Joseph Denys
Notes: ‘sauvages de Tobick’
Source: 1050, M13, F1730

Frazier, Mary Married: 1859.8.23
Priest: M Egan
Register: St. Patrick’s, Nelson
Parents / Former Spouse: — Synoth, Peter
Parents / Former Spouse: —
Witnesses: Peter Young and Mary Lou Suasin
Notes: ‘Indians’
Source: 12, M16, F7895

Gaudin, Marie Genevieve
Died: —
Age/Birthdate: 30 yrs Buried: 1815.8.20
Priest: C Boucherville ‘cure a Charlesburg’
Register: Ste. Anne, Fredericton Laurent ‘w/o Akemabishe’
Witnesses: Claude Gauvevaux ‘Exclesiastie de Quebec’ and Paul Cir
Notes: ‘sauvages’
Source: 86, I65, F1732

_______, Gregoire Married: 1834.9.12
Priest: A Gagnon
Register: St. Henri, Barachois
Parents / Former Spouse: s/o late Paul and Genevieve — , Cecile
Parents / Former Spouse: d/o Simon and Angelique Nocoute
Witnesses: Jacques (brother), Gregoire Baron (cousin of groom) and Simon (father of bride)
Notes: Gregoire ‘Micmac’ from Richibucto
Source: 240, M15, F1729

________, Helene Labrador
Priest: CF Bailly
Register: St. Pierre Aux Leins, Caraquet
Parents / Former Spouse: d/o Joseph and Jeanne Lejeune ‘dit’ Briard, Paul
Parents / Former Spouse: s/o Germain Briard Lejeune and Marie Guetri
Witnesses: Germain Briard Lejeune, Marie Guitry, Lepouse de Germain Lejeune, Joseph Lejeune, Jean Baptiste Bouche, Joseph Lejeune ‘dit’ Briard (cousin) and Louise Galand (sister in law)
Notes: all recorded as being ‘Mikmaks’
Source: 30, — , F1476

________, Jean Baptiste
Baptized: 1769.8.6
Age/Birthdate: 9 yrs
Parents: Charles Renesches and Marie Magdeleine
Priest: CF Bailly
Register: Ste. Anne de Restigouche, Carquet
Witnesses: Michel(sic) Belivaux and Agnes Gaudet
Notes: ‘mikmaks’ from Cap de Sable
Source: 17, — , F1733

Jean, Louis
Died: 1807.7 <Died 70 yrs> Buried: 1807.8.9
Priest: LF Parent
Register: St. Antoine, Richibucto —
Witnesses: Luc Richard and Jean Baptiste Richard
Notes: ‘de nation sauvage’
Source: 6, S7, F1732 S7, F1

Joseph, Gabriel
Baptized: 1820.7.24
Age/Birthdate: 6 wks
Parents: Gabriel Joseph and Françoise Joseph
Priest: J Poirier
Register: St. Thomas, Memramcook
Witnesses: François Leblanc and Magdeleine Richard
Notes: ‘sauvage’
Source: 87, B46, F1731

Joseph Michael
Baptized: 1908.6.7
Age/Birthdate: 1908.4.28
Parents: Mary Jane Gallant
Priest: AA Boucher
Register: St. Jean Baptiste, Dalhousie
Witnesses: Peter Thomas Nervie and Elisa Paul
Notes: ‘indian’ (illegitimate)
Source: 282, B29, F9376

Labouve, Marie Angie(?)
Died: 1832.1.28
Age/Birthdate: 14 yrs Buried: 1832.7.19
Priest: J Carter
Register: St. Michel, Inkerman Thomas Labouve and (?) (sic)
Witnesses: Augustin(?) and Pierre Robicheau
Notes: ‘sauvage’
Source: 168, S6, F1460

Labouve, Marie
Baptized: 1810.12.9
Age/Birthdate: 1810.9.3
Parents: Martin(?) Labauve and Marie Angelique
Priest: FM Huot
Register: St. Pierre Aux Leins, Caraquet
Witnesses: Pierre Paul and Marie
Notes: ‘sauvage’ from Pockmouche
Source: 83, — , F1476

Labove, Agnes Baptized: 1812.3.29
Age/Birthdate: 2 mos
Parents: Gabriel Labove and Therese Dadame
Priest: FM Huot
Register: St. Pierre aux Liens, Caraquet
Witnesses: (?) Cormier and (?) Godin
Notes: ‘sauvages’ from Pokemouche
Source: 106, — , F609

LaBove, Germain Gregoire
Baptized: 1769.3.2
Age/Birthdate: 3 mos
Parents: Thomas LaBove and Marie Agimaux
Priest: CF Bailly
Register: St. Pierre Aux Leins, Caraquet
Witnesses: Joseph Prejean and Marguerite Babine
Notes: Thomas specifically recorded as ‘Acadiens Mikmaks’
Source: 7, — , F1476

Labove, Louis Married: 1827.7.19
Priest: W Dollard
Register: St. Patrick’s, Nelson
Parents / Former Spouse: — Barnaby, Anne
Parents / Former Spouse: —
Witnesses: Francis Labobe and Marie Labobe
Notes: ‘Indians’
Source: 42, M14, F3

Labove, Magdeleine Married: 1856.8.19
Priest: FXS Lafrance
Register: St. Thomas, Memramcook
Parents / Former Spouse: — Bernard, Charles
Parents / Former Spouse: —
Witnesses: Thomas Bernard and Anne Marie
Notes: ‘Indian’
Source: 588, M8, F1731

Lavigne, Marie Married: 1812.10.13
Priest: FM Huot
Register: Ste. Famille, Bathurst
Parents / Former Spouse: d/o Jean Lavigne and Flavelle Boudreau(?) Young, Etienne
Parents / Former Spouse: s/o Jean Young and Magdeleine
Witnesses: Charles Doucet and Michel Hache
Notes: all from Nipisiquit
Source: — , — , F1455

Lejeune ‘dit’ Briard, Paul Labrador St. Pierre aux Liens, Caraquet
Parents / Former Spouse: s/o Germain Briard Lejeune and Marie Guetri — , Helene
Parents / Former Spouse: d/o Joseph and Jeanne
Witnesses: Germain Briard Lejeune, Marie Guitry, Lepouse de Germain Lejeune, Joseph Lejeune, Jean Baptiste Bouche, Joseph Lejeune ‘dit’ Briard (cousin) and Louise Galand (sister in law)
Notes: married in Labrador all recorded as being ‘Mikmaks’
Source: 30, — , F1476

________, Magdelaine
Died: 1801.1.1
Age/Birthdate: 10 yrs Buried: 1801.1.3
Priest: A Bedard
Register: St. Charles, L’Ardoine Charles Julien and Marie Baptiste
Witnesses: Jean Baptiste Richard and Thomas Babin
Notes: ‘sauvagesse’
Source: 172, S1, F1732

Marchand, Charlotte Married: 1889.8.27
Priest: T Barry
Register: Sacred Heart, Bathurst
Parents / Former Spouse: — Pictou, Martin
Parents / Former Spouse: widower
Witnesses: Peter Patles and Angelic Prisk
Notes: ‘Indians’
Source: 187, — , F1453

Marchand, Marie Pelagie
Baptized: 1855.7.22
Age/Birthdate: 8 wks
Parents: François Marchand and Louise Broom
Priest: N Audet
Register: Ste. Anne de Restigouche, Bonaventure
Witnesses: Nicolas Capland and Marie Barnabe
Notes: ‘indienne’
Source: 3, B10, F8443

Died: 1 yr previously (sic)
Age/Birthdate: 1.5 yrs Buried: 1825.11.8 at St. Henri, Barachois
Priest: A Gagnon
Register: St. Henri, Barachois Noel and Barbe Clermont
Witnesses: Thomas Gallant and Clement Leger
Notes: ‘mikmak’ ‘vagabonds’
Source: 338, S11, F1729

Martin, Apolline
Baptized: 1831.2.1
Age/Birthdate: 1831.2.1
Parents: Jean Martin and Susanne Marquy
Priest: A Gagnon
Register: St. Henri, Barachois
Witnesses: François Xavier Gagnon and Pelagie Arsenault
Notes: ‘indiens’
Source: 42, B8, F1729

Martin, Elizabeth
Baptized: 1919.8.23
Age/Birthdate: 1919.8.11
Parents: William Martin and Nancy(?) Dennis
Priest: JB Saindon
Register: St. Ann’s, Burnt Church
Witnesses: William Joe and Mary Sook
Source: 187, B8, F1464

Martin, John Married: 1861.7.31
Priest: M Egan
Register: St. Ann’s, Burnt Church
Parents / Former Spouse: — Theodista, Mary
Parents / Former Spouse: —
Witnesses: Francis Thoma and Mary Anne John
Notes: ‘Indians’ typed trancript with gaps
Source: 31, — , F9061

Maurice, Marie Rose
Baptized: 1823.6.17
Age/Birthdate: 1823.5.8
Parents: Pierre Maurice and late Anne Michel
Priest: L Gingras
Register: St. Thomas, Memramcook
Witnesses: Joseph Basque and Marie Rose Michel
Notes: ‘sauvage’ from Halifax
Source: 117, B38, F1731

_______, Marie Françoise Married: 1817.8.4
Priest: L Marcoux
Register: Ste. Anne, Fredericton
Parents / Former Spouse: d/o Ceasar and Françoise Daniel, Thomas
Parents / Former Spouse: s/o late Louis Jean Oiche and Therese Lagalette
Witnesses: Hilaire Cyr and Joseph Gaudin
Notes: from mission of St. François in Troise Riviere, Canada ‘sauvages’
Source: 107, 5B (sic), F1732
______, Michel
Baptized: 1836.6.13
Age/Birthdate: 6 mos
Parents: Louis Thomas and Marie Michel
Priest: A Langevin
Register: St. Basile, Madawaska
Witnesses: Michel Mercure and Françoise Cyr
Notes: ‘sauvages’
Source: 1260, B68, F1730

Mius, Marie Joseph Married: 1797.7.7
Priest: JBM Castanet
Register: St. Bernard, Neguac
Parents / Former Spouse: d/o Jean Baptiste Mius and Ursule Coby, Pierre Louis
Parents / Former Spouse: s/o Jean Baptiste Coby and Magdelaine
Witnesses: Mathieu Noel, Jean Baptiste and Michel
Source: 57, M14, F1731

Baptized: 1807.2.27
Age/Birthdate: 1808.12.1
Parents: Noel Dubois(?) and Mary Anna
Priest: U Orfroy
Register: St. Peters, Bartibog
Witnesses: Andre and Mary Françoise
Notes: ‘Indian’ from Miramichi
Source: 28, — , F1749
_______, Noel Jacques
Baptized: 1843
Age/Birthdate: 1843.10.22
Parents: Jean Jacques and Marie Magdeleine
Priest: FXS Lafrance
Register: Immaculate Conception, Pokemouche
Witnesses: Pierre Jacques and M.(sic) Angelique
Notes: ‘sauvage’
Source: 8, B34, F1467

Pominville, Pierre
Baptized: 1823.12.7
Age/Birthdate: 4 mos
Parents: Joseph Pominville and Anastasie Barnabe
Priest: FX Bellefeuille
Register: St. Pierre Aux Liens, Caraquet
Witnesses: Pierre Lanteigne and Rosalie Hache
Notes: ‘sauvage’
Source: 126, — , F609
Pauminville, Pierre
Baptized: 1824.5.2
Age/Birthdate: 1824.5.1
Parents: Jean Baptiste Pauminville and Veronique Noel
Priest: FX Bellefeuille
Register: St. Pierre aux Liens, Caraquet
Witnesses: Timothy Landry and Marie Parise
Notes: ‘sauvages’
Source: 147, B23, F1476

Prisque, François
Baptized: 1804.4.13
Age/Birthdate: —
Parents: Prisque(?) and Marie François Young
Priest: —
Register: Ste. Famille, Bathurst
Witnesses: (?) Doucet and Françoise Lejeune
Notes: ‘Indian’
Source: — , — , F1455

Baptized: 1769.8.6
Age/Birthdate: 5 yrs
Parents: Jacques Jau(sic) Alexis and Marguerite
Priest: CF Bailly
Register: Ste. Anne de Restigouche, Caraquet
Witnesses: Jacques Amiraux and Marie Joseph
Notes: ‘mikmaks’ from Cap de Sable
Source: 17, — , F1733

White, Joseph
Baptized: 1880.10.15
Age/Birthdate: 1880.10.12
Parents: John White and Clara Jerome
Priest: M Joyce
Register: St. Jean Baptiste, Dalhousie
Witnesses: Tharsille Germain
Notes: ‘indian’
Source: 104, B34, F9376

Young, Anne
Baptized: 1815.6.18
Age/Birthdate: 1815.6
Parents: Philippe Young and Elizabeth Louis
Priest: P Parent
Register: Ste. Famille, Bathurst
Witnesses: Charles Doucet and Marie Josephte
Notes: ‘indian’
Source: 27, B11, F1455

Young, Celeste
Baptized: 1815.3.30
Age/Birthdate: 1815.3
Parents: Etienne Young and (?) Lavigne
Priest: P Parent
Register: Ste. Famille, Bathurst
Witnesses: John (?) Pitre(?) and Angelique Lavigne
Notes: ‘indian’
Source: 25, B5, F1455

Young, Etienne Married: 1812.10.13
Priest: FM Huot
Register: Ste. Famille, Bathurst
Parents / Former Spouse: s/o Jean Young and Magdeleine Lavigne, Marie
Parents / Former Spouse: daughter of Jean Lavigne and Flavelle Boudreau(?)
Witnesses: Charles Doucet and Michel Hache
Notes: all from Nipisiquit
Source: — , — , F1455

Young, Magdeleine
Baptized: 1808.5.22
Age/Birthdate: 1808.3.24(?)
Parents: Philippe Young and Marie Elizabeth
Priest: U Orfroy
Register: Ste. Famille, Bathurst
Witnesses: Charles Doucet(?) and Marie Joseph(?)
Notes: ‘indian’
Source: — , — , F1455

Young, Mary Melvina
Baptized: 1911.6.25
Age/Birthdate: 1911.6.23
Parents: Joseph Young and Sara Arseneault
Priest: E Wallace
Register: Notre Dame de Lourdes, Atholville
Witnesses: William Boucher and Ellen Young
Notes: ‘indine'(sic)
Source: — , B57, F1475

Jacques Leclerc - History

The Haitian Revolution
Digital History ID 175

Author: Jessica Lange and Charles Victor Emmanuel LeClerc

In the summer of 1802, following Toussaint's imprisonment, rebellion broke out anew in Saint Domingue. In the following letter, General Charles Victor Emmanuel LeClerc (1772-1802), the French commander, discusses the problems faced by French troops, but nonetheless speaks confidently of suppressing the revolution. In fact, LeClerc died in November, three months after this letter was written, and in about a year, the Haitians, aided by yellow fever, which devastated the French ranks, defeated the French army.

When the Haitian Revolution ended in 1804, the population had been reduced by half and the economy was in ruins. In one gruesome episode, the French converted a ship, The Stifler, into an extermination machine. The French drove blacks into the ship's hold, where they were asphyxiated by noxious fumes.

American responses to the Haitian Revolution shifted radically over time. Under the administration of President John Adams, which was fighting an undeclared naval war with France, the United States signed a treaty with Toussaint, provided his army with arms and provisions, and even transported his troops by sea, allowing the blacks to successfully resist the French and mulatto military. But President Jefferson, who was strongly pro-French and a slaveholder to boot, adopted much more hostile policies toward the Haitian revolution. He assured the French in 1801 that he would be happy to supply a fleet and help "reduce Toussaint to starvation." He subsequently imposed a total embargo on Haiti.

I have received, Citizen General, your letter with the list of the troubling subjects with which you contend. Show no mercy with anyone that you suspect. One must be unflinching and inspire great terror it is the only thing that will suppress the blacks.

General [Antoine] Richepanse has very unwisely reestablished slavery in Guadaloupe. Here and there one sees signs of unrest. A division of boats is addressing the insurrection. Most of the troops of General [Jean-Baptiste] Brunet [who was responsible for Toussaint Louverture's arrest] are ill. I have ordered Jacques Dessalines [the black leader who is in a temporary alliance with the French against insurgents] to use the most violent means to frighten the rebels.

Reinforcements have now arrived. But illness is ravaging the battalion so badly that I am obliged to send almost all back to France.

This insurrection is in its last crisis. By the first month of the revolutionary calendar, with a month of campaigning, all will be over.

Frequently inform me about your position. I need to be informed as often as possible. Use examples of severity to inspire terror.

Source: Gilder Lehrman Institute

Additional information: General Charles Victor Emmanuel LeClerc to Comte de Rochambeau


The Leclerc Main Battle Tank (MBT) was developed by GIAT Industries as a successor to the AMX-30 series tanks. Its development began in 1978 and first prototypes were built in 1989. Production of the Leclerc started in 1991. This tank is named in honor to general Philippe Jacques Leclerc, commander of French armored division during World War II. The Leclerc is among of the best main battle tanks in the world. A total of 406 of these tanks were built for the French Army. Some sources claim that currently only 340 Leclercs remain in service with the French Army. Since 2011, when the French Army completely retired its AMX-30 series tanks, the Leclerc is the only MBT used in France. This tank has been exported to Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (388). Recently this MBT was also obtined by Jordan.

It is protected with advanced modular armor system, which can be tailored to the threat. Its armor is a combination of steel, ceramics and Kevlar. Damaged modules are easily replaceable. Furthermore they can be easily upgraded with more advanced armor modules. Turret and hull roof was designed to withstand top-attack munitions. Chassis of the tank is covered with wide side skirts. The main electrical systems were duplicated to improve survivability.

The Leclerc main battle tank is armed with a CN 120-26 120 mm smoothbore gun, 52 caliber long. This gun is fitted with a bustle-mounted autoloader, holding 22 rounds. Remaining 18 rounds are stored in a carousel-type storage area in front of the hull. Autoloader provides a maximum rate of fire in 12 rounds per minute. It is claimed that Leclerc MBT can engage 6 targets, located 1.5-2 km away, within one minute with a hit probability in 95%. Gun can be loaded manually both from the inside or outside the MBT. The Leclerc can fire French or standard NATO munitions.

Secondary armament consists of coaxial 12.7 mm machine gun and remotely controlled anti-aircraft 7.62 mm machine gun.

Vehicle is fitted with a battlefield management system. It automatically reports to command post tank's location, quantity of ammunition and fuel left. Broadly similar system is used on the M1A2 Abrams.

Vehicle has a crew of three, including commander, gunner and driver. An autoloader permits a three-man crew.

Leclerc main battle tank is powered by French VD V8X-1500 turbocharged diesel engine, developing 1 500 horsepower. Its powerpack is smaller than contemporary tank engines. This feature allowed to reduce overall dimensions of the tank. The powerpack can be replaced in field conditions within 30 minutes. Vehicle has a hydropneumatic suspension, providing good cross-country performance. Additional fuel tanks can be fitted at the rear of the hull for extended range.

Vehicles exported to United Arab Emirates have many improvements, including different engine. These tanks were optimized for operation in tropical conditions. These are fitted with a proven German MTU MT 883 Ka500 diesel, developing 1 500 hp.

Leclerc AZUR (Action en Zone URban), a special version optimized for urban warfare. Vehicle is fitted with enhanced protection package. This uparmored version has been exported to Saudi Arabia.

EPG prototype armored engineering vehicle.

Zayed is a Jordanian local designation of the Leclerc.

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Jacques Leclerc - History

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