Review: Volume 6 - Rock Music

Review: Volume 6 - Rock Music

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"The Essential Rock Discography Vol 1" is the ultimate concise reference guide to the biographical titbits, evolving bad lineups, anecdotes and track listings of modern pop and rock bands. Updating and encapsulating all the crucial information from the formidable "The Great Rock Discography", this new tome retains a wide spectrum of facts perfect for the ardent music lover, pub-quiz devotee and general pop fan. Music lovers everywhere already regard Martin C. Strong as a god - his established fans eagerly await "The Essential Rock Discography Vol 1".

Between 1967 and 1973, political activists around the globe prepared to mount a revolution. While the Vietnam War raged, calls for black power grew louder and liberation movements erupted everywhere from Africa to Western Europe.Demonstrators took to the streets, fought gun battles with police, planted bombs in public buildings and attempted to overthrow the world's most powerful governments.Rock and soul music fuelled the revolutionary movement with anthems and iconic imagery. Soon the musicians themselves, from John Lennon and Bob Dylan to James Brown and Fela Kuti, were being dragged into the fray. Some joined the protestors on the barricades; some were persecuted for their political activism; some abandoned the cause and were dismissed as counter-revolutionaries.This collision of radical fervour and musical passion touched every facet of the revolution. Peace campaigners, feminists, black liberationists, anarchists and urban terrorists joined hands with many of the most important figures in black and white music to create a revolutionary tide that threatened to alter the face of global politics, before ebbing away under the pressure of government harassment and rampant egotism.

Hydro Newsletter - Volume 8, Issue 6

Citing numerous “concerns” with the Clean Water Act (CWA) section 401 water quality certification rule enacted by the Trump Administration in 2020, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has issued a Notice of Intention to reconsider and revise the rule. EPA’s notice states that the new rule will be “better aligned with the cooperative federalism principles that have been central to the effective implementation of the Clean Water Act” and is “responsive to the national objectives outlined in President Biden’s Executive Order 13990.”

The EPA’s notice solicits feedback related to 10 “key issues”: (1) the requirement for an applicant to request a meeting with the certifying agency at least 30 days prior to submitting a certification request (2) the definition and elements of a certification request that triggers the statutory review period (3) how a determination is made as to what is a reasonable period of time for a certifying agency to act on a request (4) the scope of certification authority, including whether EPA should revise its interpretation of scope to include potential impacts to water quality not only from the “discharge” but also from the “activity as a whole” (5) federal agency review of certification actions (6) enforcement authority of certifying agencies and whether the citizens suit provisions of the CWA apply to section 401 (7) the ability of certifying agencies to modify or reopen a certification (8) the “neighboring jurisdiction” process under CWA section 401(a)(2) (9) data and other information on implementation of the current rule and (10) implementation of rule revisions.

Comments are due August 2, 2021. The current rule, which has been challenged in several different U.S. district courts around the country, will remain in effect until the new rule is finalized. Meanwhile, on May 20, 2021, Senator John Barrasso (R-WY) introduced the Water Quality Certification Improvement Act of 2021, S. 1761, which would preserve key aspects of the current rule.

Clean Water Act 401 Waiver Cases Update

On the litigation front, a plethora of cases are working their way through the U.S. courts of appeals challenging Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) decisions regarding state waiver of CWA section 401 certification authority. The cases arise out of FERC’s implementation of Hoopa Valley Tribe v. FERC (Hoopa), in which the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit held that a hydroelectric licensee’s repeated withdrawal and resubmission of water quality certification requests under section 401 pursuant to a written agreement with state water quality agencies does not trigger a new one-year period for state water quality review and results in waiver of the state’s authority. FERC has applied the Hoopa ruling in a number of hydroelectric licensing and natural gas pipeline certification cases, in some instances finding waiver and in other instances finding that the state agency did not waive its authority. Here is a current rundown of the cases in the courts of appeals:

In New York State Dep’t of Environmental Conservation v. FERC, on March 23, 2021, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit issued an opinion affirming FERC’s interpretation of section 401 that the state agency waived its authority by agreeing with the pipeline applicant retroactively to alter the date on which the state was deemed to have received the certification request. Petitions for a writ of certiorari are due no later than June 21, 2021.

In North Carolina Dep’t of Environmental Quality v. FERC, the State of North Carolina is challenging FERC’s sua sponte finding of waiver of water quality certification where the applicant withdrew and refiled its certification request to avoid the one-year deadline in coordination with the state water quality agency. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit panel held oral argument on this case on May 6. The decision is pending.

Six proceedings before the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit were consolidated on May 20, 2021. The California State Water Resources Control Board (California Board) and environmental groups are challenging FERC orders finding waiver of 401 certification for the Yuba-Bear, Yuba River Development, Merced River, and Merced Falls hydroelectric projects based on a coordinated process of withdrawal and refiling of certification requests to avoid the one-year deadline. Petitioners’ opening briefs are due in July. Van Ness Feldman represents licensees Yuba County Water Agency and Nevada Irrigation District in the consolidated cases.

In KEI (Maine) Power Management III LLC v. FERC, on May 6, the D.C. Circuit issued an order keeping the case in abeyance as the parties continue settlement negotiations over fish passage conditions for a hydroelectric project. FERC issued a license for the Barkers Mill Project in April 2020 while the 401 certification was still on appeal before the state agency, finding in this case that the state did not waive certification because the applicant withdrew and refiled its certification request for its own reasons and not at the direction of the state.

In Village of Morrisville v. FERC, on May 12, 2021, the D.C. Circuit issued an order holding the case in abeyance pending the outcome of the other cases discussed above. In this case FERC also denied the applicant’s request for a waiver determination, finding that the applicant voluntarily withdrew and refiled its application for its own purposes and not to give the state more time for its decision.

On May 21, 2021, the Turlock and Modesto Irrigation Districts filed petitions for review before the D.C. Circuit. The licensees for the Don Pedro Project and applicants for the unlicensed La Grange Project are challenging FERC’s declaratory order finding that the California Board did not waive 401 authority by denying certification “without prejudice” within the one-year period.

FWS Issues Proposed Rule on Regulations Governing Take of Migratory Birds

On May 7, 2021, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) published a proposed rule to revoke the Trump-era FWS rule limiting the effect of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA). The previous rule, published on January 7, 2021, stated that the scope of the MBTA applies only to intentional injuring or killing of birds and that conduct that results in the unintentional (incidental) injury or death of migratory birds is not prohibited under the MBTA. This January 7 rule had been based on a Department of the Interior Solicitor’s Office Opinion, which has since been overturned by the District Court for the Southern District of New York.

The FWS states that the new proposed rule will properly interpret the MBTA by clarifying that under the Act one can face criminal penalties for incidental migratory bird deaths. The proposed rule further provides that enforcement discretion would be applied, subject to certain legal constraints. Comments on the proposed rule are due June 7, 2021.

Biden-Harris Administration Launches Campaign to Restore and Conserve 30 Percent of America’s Lands and Waters by 2030

The Biden-Harris Administration announced a national decade-long America the Beautiful campaign to conserve, connect, and restore our land, water, and wildlife. This announcement builds off of directives in President Biden’s Executive Order 14008, Tackling the Climate Crisis at Home and Abroad (Jan. 27, 2021).

The details of the campaign are outlined in a report that calls for locally led and voluntary conservation and restoration efforts across the public, private, and Tribal lands and waters to create jobs and strengthen the economy. The report further focuses on the climate crisis and inequitable access to the outdoors. This report identifies six priority areas for early focus and investment: (1) creating more parks and safe outdoor opportunities (2) supporting Tribally led conservation and restoration priorities (3) expanding collaborative conservation of fish and wildlife habitats (4) increasing access for outdoor recreation (5) incentivizing and rewarding voluntary conservation efforts of fisheries, ranchers, farmers, and forest owners and (6) creating jobs by investing in restoration and resilience projects and initiatives. Government agencies have already begun efforts to meet the campaign goals, including the National Park Service’s announcement to provide $150 million in funding for the Outdoor Recreation Legacy Partnership Program, which helps build parks in underserved communities.

Battle of the Listed Species: Oregon District Court Denies Klamath Tribes’ Challenge to Salmon Flows

On May 6, 2021, the U.S. District Court for the District of Oregon denied a request for emergency relief by the Klamath Tribes to limit the Bureau of Reclamation’s (Reclamation) releases of water from the Upper Klamath Lake under Reclamation’s interim operation plan for the Klamath Irrigation Project. Reclamation makes such releases to protect salmon however, the Tribes assert that the releases would further endanger the C’waam, or Lost River sucker, and the Koptu, or shortnose sucker.

In April 2021, the Klamath Tribes brought suit against Reclamation, asserting that Reclamation’s implementation of its interim operation plan was in violation the Endangered Species Act (ESA) because implementation of the plan would result in incidental take of the suckers by reducing the amount of water in the Upper Klamath Lake, and Reclamation had failed to adequately consult with the FWS.

The interim operation plan was put in place while Reclamation consults with FWS and the National Marine Fisheries Service under the ESA regarding long-term operations of the Klamath Irrigation Project. FWS issued a biological opinion in 2020 on the interim operation plan and concluded that the plan was not likely to jeopardize the continued existence of the suckers based on certain assumptions regarding the lake elevation. Due to extreme drought conditions, the lake elevation is not being maintained as proposed.

In denying the Tribes’ request for emergency relief, the district court concluded that the Tribes had failed to demonstrate a likelihood of success on the merits of their ESA claims. The court noted that Reclamation is managing resources under hydrologic conditions that are beyond its control, and that it has done so in consultation with expert agencies and relevant stakeholders. The court found that the incidental take statement in the 2020 biological opinion acknowledged that it was a possibility that the lake elevation would not be maintained, and that as soon as it became clear that Upper Klamath Lake elevation would not be maintained within the scope of the biological opinion, Reclamation complied with its obligation under the biological opinion to consult with FWS “to adaptively manage and take corrective actions.”

Conservation Groups Intend to Sue Dams Allegedly Threating Survival of Atlantic Salmon

On May 12, 2021, the Conservation Law Foundation, Maine Rivers, and the Natural Resources Council of Maine (the “Conservation Groups”) sent Brookfield Renewable Partners L.P. a notice of intent to sue for violations of the ESA stemming from the ongoing operations of four hydropower projects on the Kennebec River in Maine. The Conservation Groups allege that each project is operating without authorization for the “take” of a listed species, the Gulf of Maine Distinct Population Segment of Atlantic salmon, as take authorizations for the projects expired on December 31, 2019. The Conservation Groups allege that the projects do not allow for upstream or downstream migration of the salmon, resulting in a take, which the ESA defines to include harassing, harming, pursuing, wounding or killing a listed species, as well as adverse modifications to the salmon habitat. The Conservation Groups also reference recommendations from state and federal agencies that the projects be decommissioned and removed.

The Conservation Groups argue that unless Brookfield suspends operations of the projects or obtains incidental take permits that mitigate impacts to the salmon, Brookfield remains in violation of the ESA. Among other things, the case raises the question of whether the mere existence of a dam in a stream constitutes “take” under the ESA.

FERC Closes the Books on Boyce Licenses

On May 20, 2021, FERC ended the long saga of Boyce Hydro Power, LLC’s (Boyce) ill-fated licenses for its Edenville, Sanford, Secord, and Smallwood hydroelectric projects. FERC revoked the Edenville license in 2018. In May 2019, the Edenville dam and downstream Sanford dam both failed during a record flood event. FERC agreed with Boyce’s February 2021 request to terminate the remaining three licenses based on FERC’s doctrine of implied surrender, given that Boyce had months earlier lost control of the project properties as a result of eminent domain actions by Midland and Gladwin Counties, Michigan, which hope to rebuild the two breached dams. The Counties’ agent, Four Lakes Task Force, had made clear that it had no intention of operating the dams as hydroelectric projects under FERC jurisdiction. Boyce argued, and FERC concurred, that given the unique circumstances of the eminent domain actions and Boyce’s bankruptcy and impending dissolution, it made no sense for FERC to issue license surrender orders, to which FERC typically attaches numerous conditions that must be satisfied before a surrender can become effective. FERC’s order also reiterated, as urged by Boyce, that the $15 million civil penalty FERC assessed against Boyce for various license violations would be subordinated to the bankruptcy’s settlement fund for flooding victims of the Edenville and Sanford dam breaches. Meanwhile, in Krieger v. Michigan Department of Environment, Case Nos. 20-000094-MM et al., a state court rejected the Michigan dam safety agency’s motion to dismiss an inverse condemnation suit by property owners claiming the state failed to properly regulate the Edenville dam before it breached. Van Ness Feldman assisted Boyce in the surrender proceedings before FERC.

Review: Volume 6 - Rock Music - History

      This page lists all back issues of The Rackensack Review: American Folk Music Monthly located in the Archives of the Stone County Historical Society & Stone County Museum. This tabloid sized monthly newspaper was published in Mountain View, Arkansas from 1990 until 1993 or after. When and why it ceased publication is unknown.

      As they are needed for local historical research, if you have other back issues of this monthly newspaper, please consider donating them. Send issues not listed below to:

  1. Volume 1, Number 10, Feb 1991 - The Rackensack Review
  2. Volume 2, Number 12, Apr 1992 - The Rackensack Review
  3. Volume 3, Number   1, May 1992 - The Rackensack Review
  4. Volume 4, Number   4, Jun 1993 - The Rackensack Review

Copyright © 2013 - 2018 Douglas H. Henkle, All Rights Reserved.

Various Artists

01 & 09 Written and Composed by Hanna Hais and Aminata Kouyate. Arranged & produced by Alex Finkin. Lead vocal performed by Hanna Hais & Aminata Kouyate. Backing vocals performed by Hanna Hais & Aminata Kouyate. All instruments & percussions by Alex Finkin. Recorded & mixed by Alex Finkin at minimalStudio, Paris. 01 Remix and Additional Production by Rocco at Memories Studio, France.

02 Produced and arranged by Clement Bonelli at Krome Records Studio.

Mix engineered and mastered by Dave Darlington (Double D Music NYC,

03 Written by Hanna Hais & Aminata Kouyate. Composed by Hanna Hais. Arranged by Alex Finkin. Lead and backing vocals by Hanna Hais & Aminata Kouyate. All instruments by Alex Finkin. Produced, Recorded and Mixed by Alex Finkin at Minimal Studio, Paris.

04, 05, 06 & 10 Composed, mixed, produced and mastered by Effort Gashu & Kead Wikead in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

07 Written and composed by C-Major (SA): Nqobile Ntlabathi, Phiwokuhle Madondo, Ndlelenhle Jiyane, Phindile Shoba and Mlungisi Zuma. Produced and mixed by C-Major (SA).

08 Written and composed by C-Major (SA): Nqobile Ntlabathi, Phiwokuhle Madondo, Ndlelenhle Jiyane, Phindile Shoba and Mlungisi Zuma. Vocals by Faye Wonder. Produced and mixed by C-Major (SA).

All tracks published by Atal Music except 02.

All tracks mastered by Florent Sabaton and David Hachour at Color Sound Studio, Paris, France, except 02.

About Dr. Wagner

Awarded one of the first doctorates in the country for work in women’s studies (UC Santa Cruz) and a founder of one the first college-level women’s studies programs in the United States (CSU Sacramento), Dr. Sally Roesch Wagner has taught women’s studies courses for 50 years. She currently serves as an adjunct faculty member in the Syracuse University Renée Crown University Honors Program. Dr. Wagner is the Founder and Executive Director of the Matilda Joslyn Gage Foundation and Center for Social Justice Dialogue in Fayetteville, New York

A major historian of the suffrage movement, Dr. Wagner has been active on the national scene. She appeared on the CNN Special Report: Women Represented and CNN’s Quest’s World of Wonder. She has been quoted in the New York Times, Washington Post, Smithsonian, Nation and Time Magazine, among others. Her recent articles appeared in the New York Daily News, Ms. Magazine, the National Women’s History Alliance newsletter and National Suffrage Centennial Commission blog. She appeared in and wrote the faculty guide for the Ken Burns’ documentary, “Not for Ourselves Alone.”

A prolific author, Dr. Wagner’s anthology The Women's Suffrage Movement, with a Forward by Gloria Steinem (Penguin Classics, 2019), unfolds a new intersectional look at the 19th century woman’s rights movement. Sisters in Spirit: Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Influence on Early American Feminists (Native Voices, 2001) documents the surprisingly unrecognized authority of Native women, who inspired the suffrage movement. It was followed by her young reader’s book, We Want Equal Rights: How Suffragists Were Influenced by Native American Women (Native Voices, 2020).

Among her awards, Dr. Wagner was selected as a 2020 New York State Senate Woman of Distinction, one of “21 Leaders for the 21st Century” by Women’s E-News in 2015 and she received the Katherine Coffey Award for outstanding service to museology from the Mid-Atlantic Association of Museums in 2012.


Sally Roesch Wagner
109 Avondale Place
Syracuse, NY 13210 315-727-8816

Founder and Executive Director, The Matilda Joslyn Gage Foundation, Inc. and Matilda Joslyn Gage Center for Social Justice Dialogue (2000-2013, May 2016-present)

Founding Director, Girl Ambassador for Human Rights Program, Gage Foundation (2012-2014)

Adjunct Faculty, The Renée Crown University Honors Program, Syracuse University (1999- present)

Adjunct Faculty, St. John Fisher Executive Leadership Program (2016-2019) Consultant (2020)

Public Scholar, Humanities New York (2015-2018)


Ph.D., History of Consciousness (Women’s Studies). University of California, Santa Cruz. 1978. Dissertation: “That Word is Liberty: a Biography of Matilda Joslyn Gage.” One of first doctorates awarded in the country for work in women’s studies.

B.A. and M.A., Psychology. California State University, Sacramento. 1969 and 1974.


Syracuse University. Adjunct Faculty, Honors Program, Cross-listed courses in Women’s and Gender Studies and Native American and Indigenous Studies. 1999-present.

Marcellus Sabbatical Grant, Central New York Community Foundation Award, 2012.

Jeanne K. Watson Women’s Studies Distinguished Visiting Professor in the Humanities, Syracuse University. Winter/Spring 1997.

University of California, Davis. Research Affiliate, Women’s Resources and Research

Center. Spring 1986-1999.

Distinguished Visiting Professor, State University of New York at Plattsburg. Winter 1991.

Nebraska Legislative Academy for Youth Leadership. Faculty. August 1990 and 1991.

California State University, San Francisco and University of California, Davis. Lecturer, History and Women’s Studies. 1987-1988.

National Endowment for the Humanities Fellowship for College Teachers. Recipient. 1986.

Chair, Women’s Studies Department. Mankato (MN) State University. 1984-1985.

Mankato State University, Assistant and Associate Professor. 1983-1984.

Lecturer, Women’s Studies, History, Sociology and Psychology. A founder of the women’s studies program, California State University, Sacramento. 1970-1976, 1978-1982. This was one of the first programs in the country and created the first minor in women’s studies.

Women of Distinction, New York State Senate, 2020.

Successful Business Women Award for Higher Education, Syracuse Business Journal News Network, 2017.

“21 Women Leaders for the 21 Century,” Women’s E-News, 2015.

Aberdeen Central High School Hall of Fame. Aberdeen, South Dakota, 2014.

OHA Medal. Onondaga Historical Association award for long, outstanding and meritorious service to local history. Syracuse, NY, 2014.

Excellence in Research Award. Women’s Empowerment Group, Cazenovia College, Cazenovia, NY, 2014.

Protestor of the Year Award, JERK Magazine. Syracuse University student opinion magazine, 2013.

Katherine Coffey Award. Mid-Atlantic Association of Museums for outstanding service to museology, 2012.

Peace Action Award Peace Action of Central New York, 2012.

Notable Career Contributors to Social Science, from a Clearly Feminist Perspective. Men’s Studies Association of National Organization of Men Against Sexism, 2011.

Women of Distinction Leadership Award. Girl Scout Council of Central New York, 2009

Citizen of the Year for History. Fayetteville (NY) Chamber of Commerce, 2006.

Academy of Diversity Achievers. Syracuse YWCA, 2004.

The Laura Ingalls Wilder Award for 2002-2003 for Young Adults. South Dakota Reading

Unsung Heroine Award. Central New York National Organization for Women, 1999.

Humanist Heroine of the Year. American Humanist Association, 1992.

Women of Achievement Award. South Dakota General Federation of Women’s Clubs, 1990.

Citation for work in Women’s History. California Legislature, 1989.


New York State Historian’s 250 Committee, 2020- present.

Governor’s New York Suffrage Centennial Commission, appointee, 2016-2020.

2020 Women’s Vote Centennial Initiative (WVCI), Task Force, 2016-2020..

Women’s Rights Alliance of New York State, Steering Committee, 2017-2020.

New York Cultural and Heritage Tourism Network, Planning Committee, NYS Suffrage

Centennial state conferences, 2015-2019.

IK: Other Ways of Knowing. Journal of Interinstitutional Center for Indigenous Knowledge and the University Library, Penn State. Editorial Board, 2015-2019.

Skan-onh: Great Law of Peace Center. Planning Committee, 2012-2015, Consortium 2017- present.

Syracuse Peace Council. Advisory Board, 2005-2016.

The George and Rebecca Barnes Foundation, Advisory Board 2010-2015. 1816

Farmington Quaker Meetinghouse. National Advisory Board 2009-2014.

Museums in Conversation 2013 state conference. Planning committee. 2012-2013.

Arizona Women’s Heritage Trail Advisory Board. 2012.

National Collaborative for Women’s History Sites. Founding Board member, 2003-2007.


National Women’s Political Caucus, Coalition for Women’s Appointments, The Arts and Humanities Task Force, 2020-present.

National Women’s History Museum, Scholar Advisory Team, 2020-present.

New York Times, The Women’s Suffrage Centennial consultant, 2019-2020.

“The Haudenosaunee Influence on Women’s Rights.” Exhibit Curator, Women’s Rights National Historic Park, Seneca Falls, NY, Fall 2017.

Adoption Museum, San Francisco, CA, Consultant, 2016.

Turtle Island Learning Circle. Advisor, 2015.

The National Abolition Hall of Fame and Museum, Inductee Selection Team, 2012-present.

The National Women’s Hall of Fame, Inductee Selection Team, 2012-present.

Matilda Joslyn Gage one-woman show consultant to Mimi Kennedy, 2008-present.

“Rediscovering Dorothy,” Great Plains Production documentary on Matilda Joslyn Gage. Co- producer, 2004-present.

Onondaga Nation School, Arbiter, Academic Galleria, 2010-present. “Seneca Falls,” a film by Louise Vance. Academic Advisor, 1998-2011.

“Sisters in Spirit: Celebrating the Iroquois Women’s Influence on the Early Woman’s Rights Movement” and “She Who Holds the Sky: Matilda Joslyn Gage.” Exhibits curator. Women’s Rights National Historical Park and the Elizabeth Cady Stanton Foundation, Seneca Falls, NY. Summer 1998 .

“Lakota Women: Keepers of the Nation.” Project Director with Tillie Black Bear. Curricula poster series for Office of Equal Education Opportunity, South Dakota Department of Education and Cultural Affairs. 1990–1998.

“The Haudenosaunee: Past, Present and Future.” Special Reviewer. Social Sciences Resource Guide for Grades K-12. New York State Education Department, 1991.

National Women’s History Project. Consultant. Windsor CA, 1986-1989.


Without a Whisper Konnon:kew, a film by Katsitsionni Fox, 2020. CNN Quest’s World of Wonder, 2020.

CNN Special Report: Women Represented, 2020.

Weekend Today, WSTM TV, Syracuse, 2018.

“The Good Mind”, Documentary by Gwendolen Cates, 2015.

“The Adventures of Young Indiana Jones”. Jak Films (Lucasfilm, Ltd.). 2007. “Seneca Falls,” a film by Louise Vance. Academic Advisor and Interviewee. 1998-2006.

“The Female Influence on the Oz Books.” Interviewed with Gregory MacGuire. The Woman’s Hour hosted by Jenny Murray. BBC Radio September 28, 2006.

“Not for Ourselves Alone: The Story of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony,”

Florentine Films, Ken Burns and Paul Barnes, Producers. PBS, November 7-8, 1999.

“Elizabeth Cady Stanton Symposium,” panel of historians interviewed for Florentine Films’ Stanton-Anthony film, Seneca Falls, NY, July 17, 1998. CSPAN-2, Aug 12-14, 1998.

“A Declaration of Sentiment: The History of the American Women’s Rights Movement.” Film. Mythic Pictures Limited, Toronto, Ontario. 1999. “Celebrate ’98.” Film. Yesterday’s News, Rockport, MA. 1999.

“Seneca Reflections: Celebrating 150 Years of Women’s Rights.” Film. 1998.

“150 Sesquicentennial Special.” Wisconsin Public TV, 1998.

“One Woman, One Vote.” Film. PBS Special, Educational Film Center, 1995.

“The Shirley Show.” CTV, Canada. November 1990.

2005-2020 sampling
See also Speaker in the Humanitiesfor the New York Humanities Council (below)


19 Panelist, “WE INSIST: Setting an Agenda for Future Feminists”, Women’s

March event, Seneca Falls, NY

14 Keynote, League of Women Voters Centennial Celebration, Woodland, CA

19 Keynote, Women’s Realtor Association, Sacramento, CA
21 Keynote, The League of Women Voters of Metropolitan Tulsa with University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK



19 Speaker, Women’s March, Seneca Falls, NY

8 The Women’s Suffrage Movement book launch panel with Gloria Steinem, Carol Jacobs, co-President and CEO of the ERA Coalition/Fund for Women's Equality and Louise Herne, Mohawk Bear Clan Mother, moderated by Jess Bennett, New York Times Gender Editor

11 New York Society Library

13 CUNY Graduate School, panel with Betty Lyons, Gaen hai uh, (Onondaga Nation, Snipe Clan), President and Executive Director of the American Indian Law Alliance, Julie Suk, Esq., Dean of Master’s Programs and Professor of Sociology, CUNY, moderated by Sharon Nelson, Founder and CEO, Civically Re-Engaged Women

15 Teaneck, NJ Library, sponsored by Network for Responsible Public Policy

22 SUNY Potsdam, sponsored by Native American Student Association

23 Akwesasne (Mohawk Nation) Library and Cultural Center

24 Matilda Joslyn Gage Center for Social Justice Dialogue, Fayetteville,

25 Feminist Forum, sponsored by Feminist Majority Foundation, Beverly Hills, CA

3 Keynote, NY General Federation of Women’s Clubs annual conference, Syracuse, NY

10 Syracuse Sunrise Rotary Club

11 Beta Phi Mu lunch (Library Science Honor Society) Syracuse University

22 Ska:Nonh Great Law of Peace Center, Syracuse, NY

28 Keynote, Yates County History Center Annual Meeting, Penn Yan, N

15 "Are Women People?" The Journey for Voting Rights Teacher Institute, sponsored by Idaho Humanities

25 Diversity and Inclusion lecture series, LilyDale Assembly, LilyDale, NY

26 Keynote, Centennial Celebration conference, sponsored by Civically Re-Engaged Women, Saratoga Springs, NY

13 Wesleyan Chapel, Women’s Rights National Historic Park, sponsored by Seneca Museum

4-5 Presenter, South Dakota Festival of the Arts, Deadwood, SD.

6 Speaker, Unity Tourism Conference, SUNY ESF, Syracuse, NY

15 Panel, “The Haudenosaunee influence on Women’s Rights”, Syracuse University, NY

1 Keynote, with Betty Lyons, “The Haudenosaunee Influence on Women’s Rights”, Women’s Rights Alliance of New York State conference, Syracuse, NY

11 Visiting Professor Residency, Gonzaga University, Spokane, WA

15 Keynote, New York State Women’s Bar Association conference, Seneca Falls, NY

16 Keynote, with Louise Wakerakats:te McDonald,“Indigenous Matrilineal Culture and the Feminist Movement: When Women Were the Law,” Feminist Pragmatist Colloquim, Seneca Falls, NY

11-12 Lecture and workshop presenter, International Coalition of Sites of Conscience exploration of possible Haudenosaunee women memorials, Ganondagan State Historic Site, Victor, NY

14 Keynote, League of Women Voters conference, Appleton, WI

16 Speaker series, Sonoma County Public Library, Santa Rosa, CASpeaker, Women’s March, Seneca Falls, NY


11 Cazenovia, NY Library

20 Speaker, Women’s March, Seneca Falls

3 Keynote - Daughters of the American Revolution Long Island City annual

8 Keynote - Skaneateles Rotary Women's Day

17 Poughkeepsie Library - Women Voted In New York Before Columbus

19 The Helen W. Guthrie Memorial Lecture, Nazareth College, Rochester, NY

26 Niagara University

27 Ska:Nonh Great Law of Peace Center, Syracuse, with Freida Jacques, Turtle Clan
Mother, Onondaga Nation

8 Keynote - NY Women’s Judges Assn., Aurora, NY

18 panel “Native Women”, Sponsored by the American Indian Law Institute, NYC

20 panel, “Designing for Outrage: Inviting Disruption into Public History Exhibitions”, National Council of Public History annual conference, Las Vegas

6 Rockwell Museum, Corning, NY

2 “Haudenosaunee Women” with Louise Herne, Mohawk Bear Clan Mother, Ganondagan Iroquois State Historic Site

11 League of Women Voters, Aberdeen, SD


21 Speaker, Women’s March, Seneca Falls, NY

2 Thursday Morning Roundtable, Syracuse, NY

9-10 with Jeanne Shenandoah, Eel Clan, Onondaga Nation, Museum of the American Indian, New York City

15 Haudenosaunee Influence with Jeanne Shenandoah, part of the UN Commission on the Status of Women, sponsored by American Indian Law Institute, NYC

31 “Think Tank” symposium, The Pauli Murray Center for History and Social Justice, Durham, NC

15 Kanatsiohareke Mohawk Community

19 Binghamton League of Women Voters - with Freida Jacques, Turtle Clan Mother, Onondaga Nation

20 Keynote – NY Women’s Bar Assn. annual convention

21 Amagansett NY Free Library “The Rest of The Story of The Suffrage Movement”

10 Keynote, NY League of Women Voters annual convention

17 Athens Cultural Arts Center, Athens, NY

5 Bristol Valley Playhouse, Naples, NY

30 Keynote, Women’s Day – NY State Fair, Syracuse

21 Entrepreneurial Society of Central NY

23 Genesee Country Village Museum, Mumford, NY

24 National Abolition Hall of Fame, Peterboro, NY

16 Clinton County NY Historical Society

27 NY South Central Regional Library Council annual meeting

4 Keynote, NY Cultural Heritage Tourism Network annual conference

14-16 National Trust for Historic Preservation annual conference, workshop and tour, Chicago, with Barbara Lau, Director, Pauli Murray Center and Jennifer Scott, Director, Jane Addams’ Hull HouseKeynote - NY Women’s Judges Assn., Aurora, NY
panel “Native Women”, Sponsored by the American Indian Law Institute, NYC

panel, “Designing for Outrage: Inviting Disruption into Public History Exhibitions”, National Council of Public History annual conference, Las Vegas NY


26 Kirkland Library, Clinton NY

10 NYC Department of Records and Services

16 Painting Dangerous Memories in Historic Landmarks, panel, NHPC annual conference, Baltimore

26 Rochester NY Public Library

14 Geneva NY Public Library

21 Elizabeth Cady Stanton Foundation, Johnstown NY, lecture with Freida Jacques,

Turtle Clan Mother, Onondaga Nation

28 Newark Valley NY Historical Society

7 Keynote, New York Cultural and Heritage Tourism Network annual conference, Seneca Falls NY

19 Keynote, Northern New Jersey NOW annual conference, Lincroft, NJ


26 Cultural Awareness Workshop, National Park Service staff from Women’s Rights

National Historic Park and Ft. Stanwix National Memorial

13 Judge, Academic Galleria, Onondaga Nation School

7 “The Enterprising Spirit of South Dakota Women”, Rapid City, SD Public

8 Consultant workshop with Historic Rapid City, planning the McGillycuddy Historic Home interpretation.

24 Moderator, Discussion of Suffragette, Focus Film, with film’s director and

24 “Equity” Panel member, Revisiting the Basic Call to Consciousness: Peace,

Equity and Friendship, Onondaga Nation. In Conjunction with the World Indoor Lacrosse Championship

25-26 Living History Day Presentation for students and adults. Ganondagan State

1 Keynote address, “Connecting the Dots: Native Americans, African Americans and the Women’s Rights Movement”, New York Women’s Suffrage Centennial

Conference, Seneca Falls, NY


5 Empowered Women, Haudenosaunee influence on the American feminist movement”, with Jeanne Shenandoah. Aboriginal Student Centre, Wilfrid Laurier University Brantford Campus. Waterloo, Ontario, Canada

18 Keynote address, Women Leadership Awards. California State University, Sacramento

19 “Activism on Campus in the 1970s.” California State University, Sacramento

28 Keynote, “Looking Back, Guiding Progress”, National Council of Women Conference, NYC

16 Keynote, Robert Green Ingersoll and the Reform Imperative, Council for Secular Humanism, Amherst, NY

2-5 Workshop co-chair, “In Progress Memory Initiatives,” “MEMORY: a Pillar of Transitional Justice and Human Rights” international conference. Sao Paulo, Brazil

13 Keynote, “Spirit of American Women”, Syracuse YWCA annual meeting


25 The Duns Scotus Lecture, Daeman College, Rochester, NY

22 Dialogue with Deborah Hughes, CEO, Susan B. Anthony House. Fundraiser sponsored by 2020: Project Women. Rosendale, NY

24 Matilda Joslyn Gage performance, with Dream Freedom Revival, Syracuse, NY

27 Women's Programs at the Defense Finance and Accounting Service, Rome, NY

6 “Elizabeth Cady Stanton Thunders from the Pulpit” Performance, Plymouth Congregational Church, Syracuse, NY

21 “Museums Connect: Using the Power of Stories to Link Communities and Cultures”. Panel presentation. American Alliance of Museums annual convention. Baltimore, MD

19 Keynote, Small Museums Luncheon and Panel, “Working with Community to Address Things that Matter Locally,” American Alliance for State and Local History annual convention, Birmingham, AL

20 Panel chair, International Collaboration: Extraordinary Benefits” and Online conference presentation, AASLH

5 “Influence of Haudenosaunee Women”. Legacy Women Institute, Rochester, NY

18 Panel, “Learn about advertising events and marketing your organization through storytelling”, Syracuse Neighborhood Action Conference

22 “Women’s Rights internationally”, The Central New York Council of the Social Studies Annual Professional Development Day, Syracuse, NY. With Girl Ambassadors for Human Rights

24 “Adopting ‘In’: Preserving Iroquois Traditional Community”, with Peter Jemison, Native American Lecture Series 2, Ganondagan State Historic Site and Nazareth College


21 “Haudenosaunee Influence on Women’s Rights” and “Future of the Women's Rights Trail” panel, AAUW NY State Convention

16 “History, Land and Meaning", Panel Moderator with Christopher Moore and Marianne Patinelli. Paul Smiths College VIC, Paul Smiths, NY.

21 Museum Institute at Great Camp Sagamore, NY.

13 “Matilda Joslyn Gage: Bringing Her into History”. AAUW-NYS District I Fall Conference with regional League of Women Voters. Hamburg, NY.

28-30. Wisdomthinkers Participant, Syracuse University.


1 “100 Women of Destiny “Tele-Retreat with actress Mimi Kennedy

5 Keynote, “Seneca Women’s Conference” Allegheny-Seneca Nation, Salamanca, NY

1 Keynote, “Anthony and Gage: Something to Say to Fertile Feminists Today,” with Deborah Hughes, Executive Director, Susan B. Anthony House, NY State VOX Conference, sponsored by Planned Parenthood

4 “Matilda Joslyn Gage,” The National Association of Spiritualist Churches (NSAC) annual convention, Buffalo, NY


21 Tea and Conversation with Sally,” Unitarian Universalist Church, St. Petersburg, FL.

20-24. Women Moving Millions and Women’s Funding Network annual conferences, Denver. Gage performances and premiere of women’s funding film produced by

14 "Rediscovering Dorothy through the Wonderful Mother of Oz." International Wizard of Oz Club annual convention, California State University, Fresno. With film producer Carey Graeber.

24 “Matilda Joslyn Gage,” Susan B. Anthony House Lecture series, Rochester, NY.

24 “The Influence of Haudenosaunee Women” with Jeanne Shenandoah. Onondaga Land Rights Seminar, Syracuse, NY

1 Keynote, General Federation of Women’s Clubs, Mid-Atlantic Region Conference, Syracuse, NY.


24 Medart Lecture series. Maryville University, St. Louis, MO

12 “Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Frederick Douglass: Equality Beyond Race and Gender.” Stanton performance With Fred Morsell. Slippery Rock University,

1 “How to Reinvigorate Historic House Museums.” Panel member, Historic House

Museum Professional Interest Committee Luncheon, American Association of Museums annual conference, Philadelphia, PA.
10 Commencement Convocation Speaker. SUNY Environmental Studies and Forestry, Syracuse, NY.

16-18 Matilda Joslyn Gage performance and panel “Across Differences: The Real Value of Diversity.” Bioneers 20th anniversary conference, San Rafael, CA.


30 “The Mother of Oz.” Wednesday Morning Club, Rome, NY

31 Keynote, “Women 4 Women” Annual Legislative Day, Pierre, SD

1 Keynote, “The Iroquois Influence on Early Feminists.” Women’s Leadership Conference “Herstory! 2008,” Appalachian State University, Boone, NC

8 Keynote, "Rescuing Matilda from the Outtakes of History." Gathering of Women Conference, Journey Museum, Rapid City, SD

2 Keynote, “A Woman for President?” 22nd annual Women’s History Month luncheon, University of Texas at Arlington

21 Panel, “Envisioning Racial and Gender Equality and Inclusion in Women’s Studies Research and Programs: A Continuing Conversation,” National Women’s Studies Association Annual Conference, Cincinnati, OH

20 Facilitator, “Gender Equity in Science,” workshop sponsored by Dallas Women’s Foundation and Texas Instruments, Dallas, TX

21 Keynote, “Sarah and Hillary and Susan B. and Matilda: Revisiting Our History to Renew Our Democracy,” National Network for Educational Renewal Annual Conference, University of Texas, Arlington

25 Keynote, “Changing the World by Growing Who We Are and Knowing What We Need.” South Dakota Women’s Summit, Sioux Falls, SD

23 Panel, “Feminist History Making,” Feminist Rhetorics for Social Justice conference, Syracuse University

24 Keynote, “Historical Analysis of Violence Against Women.” White Buffalo Calf Woman Society conference, Rosebud Sioux Reservation, South Dakota“The Mother of Oz.” Wednesday Morning Club, Rome, NY Keynote, “Women 4 Women” Annual Legislative Day, Pierre, SD


15 "The Influence of the Iroquois (Haudenosaunee) On Women's Rights,” El Dorado Center and Folsom Lake College, Folsom, CA

27 “Two Women Speak: A Discussion between Traditional Native Knowledge and Academic Knowledge.” With Freida Jacques, Turtle Clan, Onondaga Nation, SUNY Courtland

14-15 Memorial Lecture, Visiting Scholar Residency, “Elizabeth Cady Stanton Speaks on Religion and Women's Aspirations." University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point

15 "How Women Are ‘Erased’ from History—and Overcoming This." Theological Opportunities Program, Harvard Divinity School, Cambridge, MA


28 “Sisters In Spirit: Iroquois (Haudenosaunee) Women -- An Inspiration To Early Feminists”, with Jeanne Shenandoah, Onondaga Nation, Eel Clan, Ithaca College,

2 “Sisters in Spirit: The Iroquois Influence on Early American Feminists." Eastern Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN.

10-12 Scholar-in-Residence, Women’s Studies Program, University of Northern Arizona, Flagstaff.

31 “Was Matilda Joslyn Gage a Malcontent or Did Susan B. Destroy the Movement?” Susan B. Anthony and the Struggle for Equal Rights Conference, University of Rochester, NY

29-30 Jessie Benton Fremont scholar, Two Rivers Chautauqua, Colorado Humanities Council, Grand Junction, CO

21 “Oz, Peace, Feminism and War.” Feminism and War Conference, Syracuse University Women’s Studies, Syracuse, NY.

17 "Celebrating Sisterhood: Women's Role in Tribal Culture" with Lakota authors Allison Hedge Coke and Susan Power. Oglala Lakota College, Pine Ridge Reservation, SD.


10 “Sisters in Spirit: The Iroquois Influence on Early American Feminists." University of Arizona, Tucson

2-5 Panels, “The Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Influence on the Early Woman’s Rights Movement” and “Beyond the Stanton-Anthony Paradigm: Decentering the

Nineteenth Century Woman’s Rights Movement.” 13th Berkshire Conference on the History of Women. Scripps College, Claremont, CA

29 Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Frederick Douglass. Performance with Charles Pace. Rancho San Rafael Regional Park, Great Basin Chautauqua, Reno, NV.

26 “Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Frederick Douglass: Beyond Race and Gender in the Struggle for Equality.” Performance with Fred Morsell. “Women Win the

Vote: 85 Years and Beyond,” National Women’s History Project. Constitution Center, Philadelphia, PA.

28 Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Frederick Douglass. Performance with Fred Morsell. Paulsdale, National Historic Landmark birthplace of suffragist leader Alice Paul,

3 Elizabeth Cady Stanton Performance. American Association of School Administrators, Women Administrator Conference. National Press Club, Washington, DC

19-22 “The Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Influence on Early American Feminists,” and

panel, “The Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) and U.S. Culture.” American Academy of Religion Annual Meeting, Philadelphia, PA

“THE IROQUOIS (HAUDENOSAUNEE) INFLUENCE ON WOMEN’S RIGHTS” As Speaker in the Humanitiesfor the New York Humanities Council

March 26 Central New York NOW, Syracuse

April 13 SUNY Orange Newburgh

April 19 Nunda Historical Society

April 30 Newark Valley Historical Society

(program suspended in June)

March 1 Adirondack Museum, Blue Mountain Lake

March 23 Wyckoff House Museum, Brooklyn

March 31 Tompkins County Public Library, Ithaca

May 11 Unitarian Church Of Barneveld

(funding for the program suspended until September.)

Nov. 8 Farmington Friends Meeting House, Farmington

March 16 North Tonawanda Historical Society. North Tonawanda History Museum. (funding for the program suspended until September).

Sept. 13. Seneca Museum. Seneca Falls

February 2 Herkimer College

March 11 Buffalo Historical Society

April 26 Mohawk Valley Community College, Rome

March 26 Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva

April 14 Herkimer County Community College

April 18 Big Springs Historical Society and Museum, Caledonia

June 5 North Tonawanda History Museum, North Tonawanda,

June 20 Howland Stone Store Museum, Sherwood

January 13 Greece Town Hall, Rochester

March 8 Onondaga Historical Association, Syracuse,

April 12 Woodstock Museum, Saugerties

April 23 Niagara County Historical Society, Lockport

May 7 Rockwell Museum of Western Art, Rockwell

August 20 Fort William Henry Museum, Lake George

April 18 SUNY (State University of New York), Potsdam

April 21 Jamestown Community College, Jamestown

May 8 SUNY College of Agriculture and Technology, Cobleskill

May 15 Niagara County Historical Society, Lockport,

August 24 With Dr. Robert Spiegelman, Iroquois Museum, Howes Cave

March 6 AAUW, Bath (NY) Branch.

June 3 With Dr. Robert Spiegelman, Iroquois Museum, Howes Cave


As Speaker in the Humanities for the New York Humanities Council

March 27 National Council of Women, Church Center for the UN, NYC

Nov. 13 Onondaga Community College, Syracuse

April 12 Women’s Rights National Park Buffalo/Niagara Chapter

April 14 Marcellus Free Library

June 1 Ebenezer United Church of Christ

Oct. 13 AAUW Buffalo Branch

Feb. 24 SUNY Institute of Technology at Utica/Rome

March 27 Unitarian Church of Barneveld

Nov. 5 North Tonawanda History Museum

Feb. 21 Hudson Valley Humanists, Kingston

March 15 NOW, Rochester Chapter, Rochester

April 18 Caledonia Big Springs Historical Society

August 19 Fort William Henry Museum, Lake George

Oct. 20 St. John's College, Rochester

Feb. 26 Cazenovia Public Library

April 15 Cayuga Community College

April 21 David A. Howe Public Library, Wellsville

November 10 Phelps Mansion Museum, Binghamton, NY.

April 26 North Country Community College, Saranac Lake

April 28 Madison County Event, Madison County Office Complex, Wampsville

September 11 Howland Stone Store Museum, Sherwood


Tricia Lyman, Educational Leadership program, St. John Fisher College, Rochester, NY, 2016.

Kim Lyman-Wright, Educational Leadership program, St. John Fisher College, Rochester, NY, 2015-2017.

Eglute Johnson, Religious Studies, Syracuse University. 2005-2008.

Melinda Grube, Union College. 2005-2007.

Susan Goodier-Kalif, SUNY Albany. 2004-2007.


We Want Equal Rights: How Suffragists Were Influence by Native American Women, 7th Generation, (2020).

“Family Legacy,” book review of Princess of the Hither Isles: A Black Suffragist’s Story from the Jim Crow South, Ms. Magazine, Fall 2019.

“The Influence of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois)”, Women Win the Vote, National Women’s History Alliance. Fall 2019.

“Truth, Reconciliation and Reshaping Women’s History”, Ms. online, (March 29, 2019).

The Women’s Suffrage Movement. Penguin Classics (March 2019).

Introduction, Roses and Radicals by Susan Zimet. Viking Books for Young Readers, 2017.

“'Suffragette' is the movie feminists have been dreaming of”, U.S.A. Today, 24 November 2015.

“I’ll Have What She’s Having”, Bust Magazine, Volume 95, (October/November 2015), pp. 56-59.

The Elizabeth Cady Stanton Collection. - Five chapbook series. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse Cultural Workers, 2015.

“Safe Containers for Dangerous Memories”, co-authored with Sarah Pharaon, Barbara Lau,and Marı´a Jose´ Bolan˜ a Caballero. The Public Historian, Volume 37, Number 2 (May 2015), pp. 61-72.

Productive Discomfort: Dialogue, Reproductive Choice and Social Justice Education at the Matilda Joslyn Gage Center. With Tori Eckler and Maxinne Leighton. Journal of Museum Education, Volume 38, Number 2, Summer 2013.

The moment has come for women's equality in New York: Commentary. The [Syracuse] Post Standard online (, 18 June 2013.

Film is Antithesis of Author Baum’s Egalitarian, Matriarchal Vision. The [Syracuse] Post Standard, 17 March 2013, p. E-1.

Matilda Joslyn Gage: Far Ahead of Her Time. Syracuse Woman Magazine, March 2013, p. 32.

The Susan B. Anthony Window in the Home of Matilda Joslyn Gage. New York History Review. Volume 6, Issue 1, December 2012, pp.16-22.

Come Write On Our Walls! Museums of Ideas: Commitment and Conflict. Edinburgh: Museums Etc, Ltd., 2011.

Feminism, Native American Influences.Encyclopedia of American Indian History, Vol. II. Bruce E. Johansen and Barry M. Pritzker, Editors. Santa Barbara, Denver and Oxford: ABC: CLIO, 2008, pp. 383-387.

Matilda Joslyn Gage. The New Encyclopedia of Unbelief. Tom Flynn, Editor. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2007, pp. 351-352.

Haudenosaunee Women Inspire. Peace Newsletter. Syracuse NY Peace Council newsletter, March 2006, p. 751.

As Cady Did. Book Review. Ms. Magazine, Fall 2005, p. 75.

The Indigenous Roots of United States Feminism. In Feminist Politics, Activism and Vision: Local and Global Challenge. Luciana Ricciutelli, Angela Miles and Margaret H. McFadden, Editors. London and New York: Zed Books Ltd., 2004.

The Wonderful Mother of Oz. Baum Bugle 47, Winter 2003, pp.7-13.

American Women. YES! A Journal of Positive Futures, Spring 2002.

Forgotten Champion of Liberty: Matilda Joslyn Gage (19th Century Suffrage Leader),Free Inquiry 20:4, Fall 2002.

Woman, Church and State. Introduction to reprint of Matilda Joslyn Gage’s 1893 classic. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2001.

Sisters in Spirit: The Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Influence on Woman’s Rights. Summertown, TN: Native Voices Press, 2001.

“New Women’s History Videos.” National Women’s Studies Association Journal. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, Summer 2000.

“The Iroquois Influence on Women’s Rights” and Interview with Sally Roesch Wagner Awakened Woman E-Magazine, Winter solstice 1999.

Faculty Guide to accompany “Not For Ourselves Alone: The Story of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony,”a film by Ken Burns and Paul Barnes. Public Broadcasting System, 1999.

Matilda Joslyn Gage: She Who Holds the Sky. Aberdeen, SD: Sky Carrier Press, 1998.

Woman, Church and State. Editor, Modern Reader’s edition of Matilda Joslyn Gage’s 1893 classic. Aberdeen, SD: Sky Carrier Press, 1998.

A Time of Protest: Suffragists Challenge the Republic. Aberdeen, SD: Sky Carrier Press, 1997.

Daughters of Dakota Series. Aberdeen, SD: Sky Carrier Press, 1989-1993.

Stories from the Black Hills. Volume 6: 1993.

The Long Stories. Volume 5: 1992.

Stories of Privation: German, German-Russian and Scandinavian Immigrants

in South Dakota. Volume 4: 1991.

Stories of Friendship Between Settlers and the Dakota Indians. With Vic Runnels.

Introduction by Virginia Driving Hawk Sneve. Volume 3: 1990.

Stories from the Attic. Volume 2. 1990.

A Sampler. Volume 1: 1989.

Early Essays:

“Great Minds: Matilda Joslyn Gage,” Free Inquiry, Fall, 2000.
“Coming Home to my Heartland.” In Women Who Don't Sell Out,edited by Lenora Fulani. NY: Castillo International, 1996.
“The Iroquois Influence on Women's Rights.” In Gone to Croatan, edited by Ron Sakolsky &

James Koehnline. Brooklyn/Edinburgh: Autonomedia/AK Press, 1993.

“Matilda Joslyn Gage,” In Women Public Speakers in the United States, 1800-1925, edited by Karlyn Kohrs Campbell. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1993.

“The Iroquois Influence on Women's Rights.” In Indian Roots of American Democracy,edited by Jose Barreiro. Ithaca, NY: Akwe:Kon Press, Cornell University, 1992.

“Suffragists Protest the Constitution: September 17, 1887.” In New York and the Union,edited by Stephen L. Schechter and Richard B. Bernstein. Albany: New York State Commission on the Bicentennial of the United States Constitution, 1990.

“The Iroquois Confederacy—a Native American Model for Non-sexist Men” and “The Root of Oppression is the Loss of Memory: The Iroquois and the Earliest Feminist Vision.” In Iroquois Women: an Anthology,edited by W.G. Spitall. Ontario, Canada: Iroquois Reprints, 1990. “The History of Woman Suffrage,” “Declaration of Rights of Women: 1876,” “Minor v. Happersett” and “Matilda Joslyn Gage.” In Handbook of American Women's History,edited by Angela Howard Zophy. New York: Garland Publishing, 1989.

“Animal Liberation.” In With a Fly's Eye, Whale's Wit and Woman's Heart, edited by Stephanie T. Hoppe and Theresa Corrigan. San Francisco, CA: Cleis Press, 1989.

“I Understand Ronald Reagan Because I Understand my Father.” In Rebirth of Power, edited by Pamela Portwood, Michele Gorcey and Peggy Sanders. Racine, WI: Mother Courage Press, 1987. Biographical Introduction to reprint of Woman, Church and Stateby Matilda Joslyn Gage. Watertown, MA: Persephone Press, 1980.

Early Articles:

“Iroquois Women Inspire 19th Century Feminists.” National NOW Times. Summer 1999. “Waltzing Home to Matilda.” Women’s History Network News. July 1999.
“A Woman's Run for President.” On The Issues.Fall 1996.
“Is Equality Indigenous? The Untold Iroquois Influence on Early Radical Feminists.” On The

Issues.Winter 1996. “Meet the Lakota: The People/Oyata Kin.” Book review in Multicultural Education.Summer 1994. “The Iroquois Influence on the Early Woman's Rights Movement.” Northeast Indian Quarterly (Akwe:kon Journal).Spring 1992.
“Four Faces Perch on Stolen Land.” Sioux Falls Argus Leader.17 February 1992.

“Democracy Turned to Stone?” Rapid City Journal.8 February 1992.
“Beyond Rushmore, Borglum Had a Vision for the Sioux.” Rapid City Journal. 10 August

1991. “A Historian's Search for What Went Wrong.” A Lakota Times Supplement: Wounded Knee Remembered 1890-1990.December 1990.
“Deep Regret is Not Appropriate for Wounded Knee.” The Lakota (SD) Times. 4 December

1990.“The Pioneer Daughters Collection of the South Dakota Federation of Women's Clubs.” South Dakota History19. (Spring 1989): 95-109. “The Root of Oppression is the Loss of Memory: The Iroquois and the Early Feminist Vision.” Akwesasne Notes21. (Winter 1989): 11-13. History Editor, Changing Men,quarterly articles 1983-1993, including “The Iroquois Confederacy: A Native American Model for Non-sexist Men” (Spring/Summer 1989) “Moses Harman: Champion of Reproductive Rights” (Summer/Fall 1987) “Martin R. Delaney: Black Nationalist and Woman's Rights Activist” (Winter 1986).

“Global Grandmother: an Interview with Barbara Wiedner." Woman of Power10 (Summer 1988). “Suffragists Protest the Constitution.” New York Notes.New York State Commission on the Bicentennial of the United States Constitution, 1988. “Suffragists at the Centennial.” Sacramento (CA) Bee. 17 September 1987. “Feminists Will Reenact Suffragists' Struggles.” The Hartford (CT) Courant.6 September1987. “What Was the Connection Between the Nineteenth-Century Black Rights Movement and the Women's Rights Movement: Finding the Right Question.” Elizabeth Cady Stanton Foundation Newsletter8 (Spring 1987). “Trick or Treat is Mother's Work.” With Lynn Cooper. National Women's Studies Association Perspectives4 (Summer 1986). Oral History as a Biographical Tool.” Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies, Vol. 2, No. 2, Women's Oral History (Summer, 1977), pp. 87-92

Allen Barnes was Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences from 1967-1985. This collection consists of material related to the Centennial celebration of South Dakota State University, Barnes’ term as Dean of Arts and Sciences, and his work on getting a Performing Arts Center established on campus.

Niels Ebbesen Hansen (January 4, 1866 – October 5, 1950) was a Danish-American horticulturist and botanist who was a pioneer in plant breeding. This collection consists of articles and other materials written by Niels Hansen, during his time at South Dakota State College, as well as material gathered by Helen Hansen Loen, granddaughter of N.E. Hansen.

Sergio Troncoso

The Sergio Troncoso Papers span 1975-2020 and are divided into six series: Personal, Published Works, Magazine and Journal Contributions, Publicity, Student Letters, and Digital Objects. The bulk of the collection is drafts of his early work, including The Last Tortilla and Other Stories, The Nature of Truth, Crossing Borders: Personal Essays, and From This Wicked Patch of Dust. Also of note are his academic essays from his graduate school studies at Yale.

Collection 143

16 boxes (approximately 8 linear feet)


The Wittliff Collections, Texas State University

Administrative Information

Access Restrictions: Open for research

Preferred Citation: Sergio Troncoso Papers, The Wittliff Collections, Texas State University

Acquisition Information: Gift of Troncoso, 2020

Processing Information: Processed in 2020 by Susannah Broyles

Notes for Researchers : Access to computer files and digital materials are handled on a case-by-case basis. Please contact the archives staff for access.

Biographical Note

Sergio Troncoso (1961-) was born to Mexican immigrants in the Ysleta neighborhood of El Paso, Texas. The family lived in a colonia near the border in a house that Troncoso’s parents built, but without electricity or running water for their first two years in Ysleta.

His family had a long history of writing and storytelling. Troncoso’s paternal grandfather, Santiago Troncoso, was the editor and publisher of El Dia, the first daily newspaper in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Santiago was arrested multiple times, and even had his office firebombed several times, for reporting on government corruption. Sergio’s maternal grandmother, Dolores Rivero, was a gifted oral storyteller who would tell him stories of being a teenager during the Mexican Revolution.

From an early age, Troncoso loved reading. On weekends he would often ride his bike the 15 miles to El Paso Public Library to check out books for the week. Troncoso attended Ysleta High School, and following in his grandfather’s footsteps, he became the editor of the high school newspaper, the Pow Wow (full issues can be found in the collection).

In 1979, Troncoso began his studies at Harvard College, which he describes as a complete cultural and linguistic shock. It was there that Troncoso became profoundly aware of his Mexican roots in a way that hadn’t been possible in El Paso. As he puts it in a 2004 profile in the Houston Chronicle, "Suddenly I was brown against this white background." After never feeling like a minority in El Paso, he used this new outsider status to delve into Latin American and Mexican history. In 1983, he graduated magma cum laude with a degree in Government, with a Latin American Certificate. After he graduated, he received a Fulbright Scholarship to Mexico where he studied economics, politics, and literature.

From 1985-1992, Troncoso earned graduate degrees in International Relations and in Philosophy from Yale University, where his interests included questions of the self, philosophy and psychology, and philosophy in literature. But before he earned his doctorate, he realized that his academic work was isolating, and that while he couldn’t necessarily discuss the details of what he was learning with his family, he could tell stories. His first published short story “The Abuelita” (1987), was a fictionalized account of the intersection of the knowledge that he was learning at Yale with the people and places of Ysleta. This exploration of deep philosophical questions in a border setting is a theme that runs throughout his career.

Troncoso’s first book of collected work, The Last Tortilla and Other Stories (1999) was published by University of Arizona Press, and includes “The Abuelita.” It won the Premio Aztlán Literary Prize for the best book by a new Chicano writer, and also the Southwest Book Award from the Border Regional Library Association.

Troncoso’s debut novel, The Nature of Truth (2003), was first published by Northwestern University Press and later revised and re-released in 2014 by Arte Público. In this philosophical thriller, a Yale graduate student finds out that his boss, an internationally renowned German professor, is hiding a Nazi past.

Crossing Borders: Personal Essays (2011) contains sixteen autobiographical essays, exploring how Troncoso navigates a life full of literal and metaphorical borders. It won the Bronze Award for Essays from ForeWord Reviews, and Second Place for Best Biography in English in the International Latino Book Awards.

From This Wicked Patch of Dust (2011) is a novel that chronicles the lives of the Ysleta-based Martinez family over the span of forty years. It won multiple awards and was named as one of the best books of the year by Kirkus Reviews, and was shortlisted as runner-up for the biannual PEN/Texas Southwest Book Award for Fiction.

On July 29, 2014, the El Paso City Council voted unanimously to rename the Ysleta public library branch in honor of Troncoso. At the dedication ceremony, he announced the creation of the annual Troncoso Reading Prizes to encourage students in the Ysleta area to read.

In 2019, Troncoso published a collection of linked short stories on immigration, A Peculiar Kind of Immigrant's Son (Cinco Puntos Press) to critical acclaim. In 2020, it won First Place in the category of Best Collection of Short Stories (English/Bilingual) at the International Latino Book Awards.

In 2020, Troncoso was elected President of the Texas Institute of Letters. Other honors include being inducted into the Hispanic Scholarship Fund’s Hall of Fame as well as serving as a judge for multiple literary awards such as the PEN/Faulkner Award for Fiction.

As of 2020, Troncoso lives in New York City with his wife Laura and their two sons. He teaches writing at Yale Writers’ Workshop.

Scope and Contents

The Sergio Troncoso Papers span 1975-2020 and are arranged into six series: Personal Papers, Published Work, Publications, Publicity, Reader Correspondence, and Digital Objects. The bulk of the collection is drafts of his early work, including The Last Tortilla and Other Stories, The Nature of Truth, Crossing Borders: Personal Essays, and From This Wicked Patch of Dust. Also of note are his early writings, especially his academic essays from his graduate school studies at Yale. The collection was donated by Troncoso, and many items in the collection have a handwritten note by him explaining its significance.

Series Descriptions

Series I – Personal Papers, 1975-1992, undated

Box 1 and Oversized

This series includes a medal Troncoso won in grade school, a full year run of Pow-Wow (the high school paper he was editor of at Ysleta High School), and name badges from Harvard reunions. Of particular note are Troncoso’s handwritten college application essays and academic papers from his studies at Harvard and Yale.

Series II – Published Work, 1987-2014

This series contains drafts of Troncoso’s published works and makes up the bulk of the collection. The series is arranged chronologically beginning with The Last Tortilla and Other Stories (1999) and ending with From This Wicked Patch of Dust (2011). The Nature of Truth (2003 2014) is particularly well-represented with multiple drafts, many with Troncoso’s handwritten edits. Also of note is the 1987 copy of the short story “The Abuelita” which later appeared in The Last Tortilla and Other Stories.

Series III - Magazine and Journal Contributions, 1989-2019

Many stories in The Last Tortilla and Other Stories and Crossing Borders: Personal Essays were first published in these publications. It is arranged chronologically.

Series IV - Publicity, 1975-2019, undated

Box 14 and Oversized

This series is separated into three subseries: Appearances, Clippings, and Magazines.

Appearances (1999-2020, undated ) contains flyers, programs, and brochures of Troncoso’s many appearances at festivals and events. Of particular note is a souvenir from the 2003 Hispanic Scholarship Fund Alumni Hall of Fame Induction Ceremony that includes a video of the event where Troncoso won the Brilliante award.

Clippings (1975-2011, undated) predominately contains newspaper articles both about and by Troncoso and are arranged chronologically. The articles range from a 1975 piece about Troncoso winning a math competition (the medal he won is in the collection) to later reviews of his works and opinion pieces penned by Troncoso. There is one work of fiction included in the series: a story co-written with Christine Lehner in the October 2, 2003 issue of The Journal News.

Magazines (1997-2008) includes full magazine issues with articles about Troncoso and his work. These are also arranged chronologically.

Series V – Student Letters, 2003-2020

Reflecting the impact his writing has had on young readers, these are primarily thank-you letters written to Troncoso from students whose schools he had visited. The letters from Bon View Elementary School in Ontario, California are particularly poignant due to Troncoso’s aunt, a longtime teacher’s aide at that school, having recently passed away.

Series VI – Digital Objects, ca. 1965, 2003, 2010-2020, undated

This series contains both computer disks with drafts of Troncoso’s work and also the contents of a USB drive (113 digital photographs, 2 videos, and 4 documents). This material requires additional archival processing. Access is on a case-by-case basis.

Container List

Series I: Personal, 1975-1992, undated

1 1 Medal from junior high math competition, 1975 (with note from Troncoso) Badges from 20 th and 35 th Harvard Reunions

16 1 Ysleta High School Pow Wow Newspaper issues, September 1978 - May 1979 (16) with note from Troncoso, July 24, 2020

1 2 Drafts of college applications to Harvard, Princeton, Rice, Columbia, Yale with note from Troncoso, July 29, 2020

1 3 Academic papers, 1983-1992

“Recent Trends in the Mexican Labor Movement: Economic Deterioration and Increasing Conflicts.” Harvard, May 4, 1983

“Why is Erotic Madness Important for the Philosophical Life? Love and Philosophy in Plato’s Phaedrus.” Qualifying Paper. Department of Philosophy. Yale University, October 31, 1990

“What Does Wittgenstein Mean By the forms of Life? The Experiences of Being Guided (section 172-178) in the Philosophical Investigations.” Second Qualifying Paper. Department of Philosophy. Yale University, October 31, 1991

“Reason and Desire in Aristotle’s Theory of Rational Choice and Practical

Wisdom.” Prospectus Draft. Department of Philosophy. Yale University, September 7, 1992

Series II: Published Works, 1987-2014

The Last Tortilla and Other Stories ( Published 1999) , 1987-1999 [Working titles “The Abuelita” and “Angie Luna and Other Stories”]

1 4 “The Abuelita” 1987. Print outs, 21 pages, uncorrected. (Photocopied reference copy included)

1 5 “Angie Luna and Other Stories” Original manuscript, 1998. Print outs, 204 pages, Uncorrected

1 6 “Angie Luna and Other Stories” Desert Editorial edited manuscript, 1998. Print

outs, 201 pages, heavily corrected. Includes correspondence and style sheet

1 7 “The Last Tortilla and Other Stories” University of Arizona page proof, 1999. Print outs, 222 pages, minor corrections with cover letter note from Troncoso, July 20, 2020 and handwritten label from original box

1 8 Cover proofs (2) Flyers, 1999 (3)

The Nature of Truth (Published 2003 and 2014), 1994-2014 [Working titles “Murderous Thinking” and “Truth and Murder”]

2 1-2 “Murderous Thinking” Version A, 1994. Print outs, 331 pages, uncorrected with

note from Troncoso, July 20, 2020 and handwritten label from original box (2 folders)

2 3-4 “Murderous Thinking” Version B, 1994. Print outs, 342 pages, uncorrected (2 folders)

2 5-6 “Murderous Thinking” Version C, 1994. Print outs, 344 pages, uncorrected (3 folders)

3 1-2 “Murderous Thinking” Version D, 1994. Print outs, 331 pages, uncorrected with note from Troncoso, July 20, 2020 (2 folders)

3 3-5 “Murderous Thinking” Version E, 1994. Print outs, 388 pages, corrections and notes in pencil 8 pages of holograph notes (3 folders)

3 6 “Truth and Murder” Version F, 1998. Print outs, 551 pages corrections in ink 2 pages of holograph notes with note from Troncoso, July 20, 2020 and handwritten label from original box (1 of 3 folders)

4 1-2 “Truth and Murder” Version F, 1998, continued (2 of 3 folders)

4 3-6 “Truth and Murder” Version G, 1998. Print outs, 645 pages corrected (4 folders)

5 1-4 “Truth and Murder” 1999. Print outs, 645 pages, uncorrected (4 folders)

5 5-6 “The Nature of Truth” Version H, 2000. Print outs, 554 pages, minor corrections

with note from Troncoso, July 20, 2020 and handwritten label from original box (2 of 3 folders)

6 1 “The Nature of Truth” Version H, 2000, continued (1 of 3 folders)

6 2-4 “Truth and Murder” Version H, 2000. Print outs, 580 pages, heavily corrected in

6 5 “The Nature of Truth” Version I, 2001. Print outs, 519 pages, uncorrected with note from Troncoso, July 23, 2020 and handwritten label from original box (1 of 3 folders)

7 1-2 “The Nature of Truth” Version I, 2001. Continued (2 of 3 folders)

7 3-5 “The Nature of Truth” Version I, 2001. Print outs, 553 pages, heavily corrected in red ink. Copy 2 (3 folders)

8 1-2 “The Nature of Truth” Northwestern University Press copyedited manuscript. Printouts, 323 pages, heavily corrected in black ink. Includes cover letter and handwritten label from original box (2 folders)

8 3-4 “The Nature of Truth” Northwestern University Press copyedited manuscript. “Compare MS” Print outs, 413 pages, heavily corrected. Includes correspondence (2 folders)

8 5-6 “The Nature of Truth” Northwestern University Press final version page proof, 2003. Print outs, 261 pages, uncorrected. Includes correspondence (2 folders)

9 1-3 “The Nature of Truth”, 2003. Print outs, 519 pages, uncorrected (3 folders)

9 5-6 “The Nature of Truth” Proof of final version by Arte Público Press, 2014. Print outs, 261 pages, corrected with note from Troncoso, July 23, 2020 and handwritten label from original box (2 folders)

Hit List: The Best of Latino Mystery (Published 2009), 2010

10 1 “Nuts”, 2010. Print outs, 21 pages, corrected

Crossing Borders: Personal Essays ( Published 2011), 2009-2011 [Working title “The Wicked Patch of Dust: Essays”]

10 2 “The Wicked Patch of Dust: Essays”, 2009. Print outs, 114 pages, heavily corrected with note from Troncoso, July 23, 2020 and handwritten label from original box

10 3 “The Wicked Patch of Dust: Essays” 2009. Print outs, 124 pages, minor corrections

10 4 “Finding Our Voice: Latinos in the Cultural and Political Debates of the United States”, 2010. Print outs, 22 pages, uncorrected (originally a speech for the White Memorial Lecture, in Lawrence, Massachusetts, but turned into essay and was included in the published version of Crossing Borders)

10 5 “Crossing Borders: Personal Essays”, 2011. Print outs, 198 pages, uncorrected

From This Wicked Patch of Dust (Published 2011), 2009-2011 [Working titles “Ysleta: The Promise Land”]

10 6-7 “Ysleta: The Promise Land”, 2009. Print outs, 253 pages, minor corrections also includes a plot outline and a synopsis. With note from Troncoso, July 23, 2020 and handwritten label from original box (2 folders)

11 1-2 “Ysleta: The Promised Land”, 2010. Print outs, 247 pages, uncorrected (2 Folders)

11 3-4 “From This Wicked Patch of Dust”, 2011. Print outs, 247 pages, uncorrected. (2 folders)

Series III: Magazine and Journal Contributions, 1989-2019

11 5 Rio Grande Review, Volume 8, Number 2. “The Abuelita” Spring 1989.

11 6 Blue Mesa Review, Number 6. “A Rock Trying to Be A Stone” Spring 1994.

11 7 American Way, Volume 27, Number 22. “The Gardener” November 15, 1994.

11 8 Blue Mesa Review, Number 7. “The Snake” 1995.

12 1 Other Voices, Volume 27. “Remembering Possibilities” Fall/Winter 1997.

12 2 Hadassah Magazine, Volume 80, Number 5. “Jalapeños with Fresh Halla” January 1999.

12 3 Tierra Adentro, Numero 117-118. “Una Piedra Tratando de Volverse Roca August-November 2002.

12 4 Hadassah Magazine, Volume 85, Number 6. “Crossing Borders” February 2004.

12 5 MultiCultural Review, Volume 16, Number 2. Review Essay of The General and the Jaguar: Pershing’s Hunt for Pancho Villa. Summer 2007.

12 6 Pembroke Magazine, Number 40. “Apostate of my ‘Literary Family’ – to the memory of Sandy Taylor” 2008.

12 7 The Westchester Review, Volume 2. “The Father is in the Details” 2008.

12 8 Literal, Latin American Voices. “A Third Culture Literature and Migration” Spring 2010.

12 9 Literal, Latin American Voices. “The Loss of Juárez. Has the Violence in Juárez Changed Border Culture?” Winter 2010-2011.

12 10 The Packinghouse Review, Volume 2, Number 3. “New Englander” 2011.

12 11 The Packinghouse Review, Volume 2, Number 4. “Harvardiana Latino” 2011.

13 1 The Blair Review. “Blair Academy and the Border” Summer 2014.

13 2 Review: Literature and Arts of the Americas, Volume 47, Number 2. “Yamecah” November 2014.

13 3 Prime Number: A Journal of Distinctive Poetry and Prose, Volume 4. Interview with Troncoso by Brandon D. Schuler 2014.

13 4 Texas Monthly. “The Good Son” April 2015.

13 5 Michigan Quarterly Review, Volume 56, Number 1. “Library Island” Winter 2017.

13 6 The Yale Review, Volume 106, Number 3. “Eternal Return” July 2018.

13 7 The New Guard, Volume 7. “Fragments of a Dream” 2018.

13 8 New Letters: A Magazine of Writings and Art. Volume 85, Number 4. “Life as Crossing Borders” 2019.

Series IV: Publicity, 1975-2019, undated

Appearances, 1999-2020, undated

14 1-2 Flyers, programs, and brochures of public appearances 1999-2000, 2003, 2007- 2008, 2010-2014, 2019-2020 (24) (2 folders)

14 3 Badges and nametags from events, 1999, 2003, 2009, 2019, undated (5)

14 4 Post-event correspondence, 2014

Clippings, 1975-2011, undated

16 2 1975, 1978, 1999-2000, 2003-2005, 2008, 2011, undated (21) with note from Troncoso, July 24, 2020

Magazines, 1997-2008

14 4 Hispanic. January/February 1997. Review of New World: Young Latino Writers, edited and with an introduction by Ilan Stavans.

14 5 Texas Monthly. November 1999. Profile.

14 6 Hispanic. December 2003. The Hispanic Scholarship Fund Alumni Hall of Fame Advertisement

14 7 Harvard Magazine. May-June 2008. Identity Seeker.

Series V: Student Letters, 2003-2020

Bon View Elementary School. Ontario, California, 2003

15 1 Note from Troncoso, July 24, 2020 Correspondence from Cristina Anderson, librarian (2) Note from Mrs. Kitching’s class

15 2 Correspondence from Kate Cerda-Nunez, with enclosure and pictures of the event (13)

15 3 Letters from Mrs. Bartosh’s 4 th grade class

15 4 Letters from Mrs. Mitchell’s 4 th grade class

15 5 Letters from Mrs. Kelly’s 5 th grade class

15 6 Letters from Mrs. Bell’s 6 th grade class

15 7 Letters from Mrs. Ferguson’s class

15 8 Letters from Mr. Bradley’s class

15 9 Unknown class letters (possibly Mr. Olive’s 4 th /5 th grade)

15 10 Rancho Alamitas High School. Garden Grove, California, 2012 (includes note from Troncoso, July 27, 2020)

15 11 4 th Grade Class Howard Burnham Elementary School. El Paso, Texas, 2020 (includes note from Troncoso, July 27, 2020)

Series VI: Digital Objects, ca. 1965, 2003, 2010-2020, undated

15 12-14 3.5-inch disks (32) and 5.25-inch disks (3) with electronic versions of Troncoso’s work (3 folders)

The United States Ratification of the Treaty of Ghent

Yet, while it addressed none of these issues, the American commissioners at Ghent, the Secretary of State, the President, and the Senate all approved the treaty. It was also widely praised at home as a victory for the United States. [2] It is true that the treaty did not put an end to the practice of impressment or blockades. It did not compensate the United States for its losses. It did not add any territory to the United States. It was, however, an honorable peace, which preserved the independence and sovereignty of a nation that had reached beyond its grasp in declaring war in 1812.

The treaty negotiations, though not covered by this essay, are key to understanding why the treaty was so readily ratified by the United States. For the American peace commissioners (John Quincy Adams, James Bayard, Henry Clay, Albert Gallatin, and Jonathan Russell) the negotiations had been immensely frustrating. British delay tactics seemed never ending, and British demands were outrageous. Yet, the American ministers were able to stand their ground. Both countries were weary of the war, and Britain was distracted by important events in Europe (including Napoleon's return and the Congress of Vienna). These factors clearly played an important role in the United States' getting an "honorable peace" out of the negotiations, but they were not the only factors. The steadfastness and skill of the five American commissioners cannot be overlooked. These men stood toe to toe with what was then probably the world's greatest powerñBritain, the vanquisher of Napoleonñand had not flinched. For each outrageous demand Britain put on the table, the American ministers refused to give in, even at times, risking the entire peace process. For a man like John Quincy Adams, there would be an honorable peace, or there would be no peace at all. [3] Indeed, Adams eloquently expressed this sentiment in July 1814, and he and his fellow commissioners stayed true to it: The object upon which I was in the first instance directed to repair to Gothenburg, and for which, by a subsequent proposal from the British Government, and assented to by my Colleagues, I am with them in this city, is as you justly observe of a nature to engage the wishes of every true American, and the patriotic exertions of every person entrusted with a charge so highly important to the community. Peace upon honorable terms, would be a blessing of such inestimable value to our country, that I trust that neither myself nor any one of my colleagues would deem his life or mine a sacrifice too great to obtain it. Dearly as I value peace, and much as I know it is needed and desired by our Country, I pledge myself to you that you shall never see my name to a treaty, no, nor to any one stipulation that shall give you cause to blush for your country or for your friend. [4]

In light of all Britain's demands, this was accomplished. It is also important to remember how badly the war had been going for the United States. August, 1814 witnessed a number of major disasters, including the collapse of U.S. credit, British occupation of Pensacola, the burning of Washington, and Nantucket's declaration of neutrality. [5] Despite being in a weak position because of this, the American delegation was able to hold their own. The treaty would not gain much for the United States, but it did preserve the young nation's honor. That, perhaps more than any other reason, is why the treaty was so readily accepted and even praised at home and abroad. However, one must acknowledge the skill of the British, and note that Britain had been very successful in changing the focus of the negotiations. Rather than discussing the American proposals, everything centered around Britain's demands. If their goal had been to subjugate America, as Gallatin suspected, they failed, for despite the burning of Washington, America fought on, and would soon win a number of important victories, including the Battle of Lake Champlain, depriving Great Britain control of the Great Lakes (deemed vital by the Duke of Wellington). Thus, Adams' theory that Britain was only out to delay, hoping for more favorable circumstances, seems plausible. Clay, as far back as August 11, suspected that the British, desirous of peace and more concerned with European affairs, were raising the new demands as a counterweight to America's goals. He thought Britain would most likely pass over these issues if America passed over impressment. [6] Moreover, on October 18 he wrote that "there is much reason to believe that the other party has aimed to protract the negotiation here so as to make it subservient to his views at Vienna." [7] Thus, one could surmise that Britain's tactic prevailed, though they actually gained nothing from the long delays and seemingly pointless demands. Impressment, if it was still vital to the British, had been deemed a dead and expendable cause by Madison, his cabinet, and the American commissioners. European peace made it so. If nothing else, the treaty-making process calls into question the sensibility of the United States' declaration of war in 1812, a view that many Americans shared.

The American peace commission worked with titanic effort, courage, and perseverance to save face for a country that had reached beyond its grasp. The treaty was not honorable because of what it gained for America. Rather, it was honorable because of what it prevented from happening to America. Understanding this is absolutely vital to understanding why the President of the United States, the United States Senate, and the American people accepted a treaty that established status quo ante bellum and did not so much as address America's main 1812 war aims. Historians have viewed the treaty and its results in a number of ways, but, viewed as a whole, they do not (either in part or in full) take into account the importance of the American commissioners' stand the very real possibility that the terms could have been very much worse for America nor do they adequately explain the treaty's favorable reception. Some claim that the United States had no choice but to ratify the treaty, while others nearly ignore it, referring to the treaty as nothing but a hollow document. Others explain the treaty's favorable reception in terms of a rising tide of nationalism. Frank Updyke, writing with the benefit of one hundred years of hindsight, wrote: The United States secured from Great Britain a more complete recognition of her political independence and power the claims and demands of Great Britain were rejected the best usages of international law were confirmed and developed an enduring peace was secured. [8] He believed the treaty directly resulted in one hundred years of peace between the two countries, and marked the United States' induction to the world of major international players. The treaty garnered international respect for the young nation. Of course, relations between the United States and Great Britain from 1812 to 1914 were not always good. On several occasionsñthe Oregon Question and the Trent Affairñthe two nations nearly went to war for a third time. However, Updyke, though he greatly overstates his case, is correct in that the two never again faced each other in battle. Assuming the United States did gain something in international stature after the war, it is a gross overstatement to say that the United States was entering the field of major world players at this point (or for some time to come). A. T. Mahan and K. C. Babcock [9] agree that the war was a vital component in the rise of American nationalism, but Donald Hickey comes closest to delving into the treaty's true significance. He clearly states that "the United States could not in good conscience claim to have won the war. But. the nation could at least claim it won the peace." [10] For a time, until the War of 1812 became more familiar through myth rather than legend, he also indicates that it was a sort of kick in the pants to an overconfident United States. However, Hickey too believes the myth contributed to nationalism and writes:

The War of 1812 thus passed into history not as a futile and costly struggle in which the United States had barely escaped defeat and disunion but as a glorious triumph in which the nation had single handedly defeated the conqueror of Napoleon and the Mistress of the Seas. [11] Hickey, though he gives short shrift to the Senate's and Madison's ratifications of the treaty, at least credits the American commissioners with struggling to craft a peace that did not spell disaster for the United States. Still, he pays more attention to the mythic perceptions about the war then the reality about the reception of the treaty. [12] Bradford Perkins also agrees that the war brought about a new birth of nationalism, and he further agrees that, to a large extent, the resurgent nationalism was due to myth rather than reality. He writes: They [Americans] had escaped disaster by being militarily just efficient enough to show Liverpool and his cabinet that half measures would not succeed. As a result, they emerged from the morass into which Thomas Jefferson had plunged them, and the very miseries of the prewar years made the wartime record look better than it deserved. Thus the War of 1812 revived the nationalism born in the era of the American Revolution and destroyed a sense of tentativeness about the Constitution that the nation could ill afford. [13] Perkins, however, like many other historians, views the treaty itself as being rather empty, stating that it "essentially ignored all major issues or simply restored the prewar status quo." [14] He rather downplays the American commissioners' stand against Britain's outrageous demands, claiming the treaty itself was received well in the United States due to elation over Jackson's victory and the failure of the Hartford Convention. These events silenced would be critics and opened the door the Republican press to paint the treaty in a better light. Though there is some truth to this, it does not tell the entire story. Thus, there is some agreement among these historians as to the effects of the war and the treaty. Others produce similar conclusions. Reginald Horsman, offers useful insights. He, like Hickey, writes that, though none of the American war aims were achieved, nothing was lost either. Moreover, he generally agrees that the war and the peace succeeded in drastically altering the course of American history. From 1815 on, he argues, the United States would no longer have a reactionary foreign policy and would become a major threat to any power with interests in North America. [15] The United States had entered the war unprepared, but managed to survive in war and peace. Twenty years of danger to the country's national sovereignty ended with the Treaty of Ghent. [16]

Henry Adams, arguably one of America's greatest historians, takes a similar view. Though he viewed the treaty itself as little more than an end to hostilities, it represented the end of an era in American history. This came in the form of a general repudiation of old republican values, even among men such as Monroe, who now advocated a fairly large standing army. [17] Standing armies require higher taxes and higher taxes require more government. Thus, if one follows Adams' logic, the war and the peace allowed the Democratic Republicans to, once and for all, out federalize the Federalists, thus ending the first American party system and opening the "Era of Good Feelings." John Mahon argues that the treaty was less a result of anything the United States did, but more a result of British woes. By the end of 1814, negotiations at Vienna were going badly for them, and there was no guarantee that European stability would remain intact. Moreover, the British people would no longer suffer high taxes since the war in Europe was over. The government would probably not have been able to continue high levels of taxation for the war against America. Finally, the Duke of Wellington's arguments against continued war and American victories at Baltimore, Lake Erie, and Plattsburg made it nearly impossible for the ministry to continue the war so that it could hold onto its major demands. Mahon, however, also agrees that the United States' coming out of the war basically unharmed increased its international stature, and led to an increase in federal power at home. [18] Finally, J. C. A. Stagg takes the most negative view of the war and the treaty. He writes that "by 1815 the United States had done little more than survive some of the most dangerous threats that had yet been posed to its existence as a nation." [19] Stagg feels that no matter what sort of satisfaction Americans may have felt after the war, the treaty was nothing more than an "empty document," because none of the maritime or trade issues that caused the war had been resolved, and tension between the United States and Britain did not vanish as a result of the treaty. [20] Despite the quality and stature of their work, these historians all seem to miss something about the treaty. Some grant that it was praised at home and readily accepted by the President and the Senate, and some see it as the beginning of a new nationalism. They, however, either treat these issues (especially the ratification process) only superficially or ascribe the treaty's favorable reception to secondary issues.

Far from being an empty document as Stagg describes it, the treaty represents much more. Moreover, the treaty's reception, though influenced by secondary events, had a great deal to do with its own merits, as the treaty was widely circulated among country's leadership and the public. It was, in fact, reprinted in nearly all of the nation's major newspapers. Indeed, one is led to agree with Adams, Horsman, Babcock, and Hickey, who argue that the treaty was, in some form, a victory for the United States, which resulted in the rise of nationalism and federal power. However, reception and ratification can only be understood in the context of the American commissioner's outstanding work at Ghent. Moreover, one must examine how five key groups--the commissioners, major American political figures, foreign powers, the press, and the Senate itself--received the treaty to gain the full perspective on whether or not it was more than just "an empty document" as Stagg argues. Once done, it becomes clear that the treaty was, indeed, much more. The question, however, is how much more. The fact that they had been unable to end impressment and other odious maritime issues notwithstanding, the American commissioners, who had endured so much during the negotiations, were universally pleased at the final result. Adams, who had often been the most pessimistic, was basically pleased with the treaty and wrote: It [the treaty] is not such as under more propitious circumstances might have been expected, and to be fairly estimated must be compared not with or desires but with what the situation of both parties and of the world at and during the negotiation made attainable. [21] Adams approves, but does not sound overjoyed with the treaty. Fred Engleman points out that the commissioners, in fact, had not been at all pleased with the treaty immediately after the signing. However, he adds that, as the bitterness of the past months began to fade, their moods lightened. Engleman writes: As each [commissioner] received the plaudits of the citizens of Ghent and reflected on the real and potential disasters to his country, he came to believe that the commission had acted with some courage and wisdom. [22] This was among the most important reasons anyone had to praise the treaty. Whatever else the Treaty of Ghent was, it could have been so very much worse for the United States, and no one knew that better than the American commissioners. The other commissioners thoughtmuch like Adams. Henry Clay, the old War Hawk, wrote to Monroe that: Judged, however, by the actual condition of things, so far as it is known to us, they [treaty terms] cannot be pronounced very unfavorable. We lose no territory, I think no honor. judged of by another standard, the pretensions of the enemy at the opening of the negotiation, the conditions of the peace certainly reflect no dishonor on us. [23]

Again, the same argument carries: Clay too thought that things could have been much worse, had the commission not stood its ground against the British. He also, like Adams, places the treaty in its proper context. Bayard too agreed, and wrote that "the government no doubt will ratify it [the treaty], for it is certainly as favorable as could be expected under existing circumstances." [24] More positive than either Adams or Clay, Bayard also believed the treaty and the war raised the United States' reputation in Europe because, the country and its commissioners "stood up so well." [25] Gallatin too agreed on both counts, but complained that the European powers had been indifferent toward the United States. [26]

Overall, the commissioners were pleased with their work. Assuredly, they would have been much happier had impressment and neutral rights been included in the treaty, but they had to take what they could get. Everyone knew the country narrowly escaped what could have been a great defeat. Engleman agrees, and writes, "For a country that was internally divided, militarily impotent, and nearly bankrupt, the good fortune of the peace treaty was remarkable." [27] Most everyone at home would also agree with this. However, as Gallatin observed, the foreign powers were largely indifferent, since they were preoccupied with troubles of their own.

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