Norman Life

Norman Life

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  • The Normans
  • Domesday Survey
  • Magna Carta
  • Feudal System
  • Feudal System Chart
  • Tower of London
  • Pilgrimage
  • Pilgrimage to Canterbury
  • Canterbury Cathedral
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History of Normandy

Normandy was a province in the North-West of France under the Ancien Régime which lasted until the latter part of the 18th century. Initially populated by Celtic tribes in the West and Belgic tribes in the North East, it was conquered in AD 98 by the Romans and integrated into the province of Gallia Lugdunensis by Augustus. In the 4th century, Gratian divided the province into the civitates that constitute the historical borders. After the fall of Rome in the 5th century, the Franks became the dominant ethnic group in the area, built several monasteries, and replaced the barbarism of the region with the civilization of the Carolingian Empire. Towards the end of the 8th century, Viking raids devastated the region, prompting the establishment of the Duchy of Normandy in 911. After 150 years of expansion, the borders of Normandy reached relative stability. These old borders roughly correspond to the present borders of Lower Normandy, Upper Normandy and the Channel Islands. Mainland Normandy was integrated into the Kingdom of France in 1204. The region was badly damaged during the Hundred Years War and the Wars of Religion, the Normans having more converts to Protestantism than other peoples of France. In the 20th century, D-Day, the 1944 Allied invasion of Western Europe, started in Normandy. In 1956, mainland Normandy was separated into two regions, Lower Normandy and Upper Normandy, which were reunified in 2016.

Norman Rockwell

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Norman Rockwell, (born February 3, 1894, New York City, New York, U.S.—died November 8, 1978, Stockbridge, Massachusetts), American illustrator best known for his covers for the journal The Saturday Evening Post.

Rockwell, a scholarship winner of the Art Students League, received his first freelance assignment from Condé Nast at age 17 and thereafter provided illustrations for various magazines. In 1916 he sold his first cover to The Saturday Evening Post, for which in the next 47 years he illustrated a total of 322 magazine covers. From 1926 to 1976 Rockwell also illustrated the official Boy Scout Calendar. During World War II, posters of his paintings portraying the “ Four Freedoms” were reproduced and distributed by the Office of War Information.

Rockwell was a careful craftsman with an ability to represent detail realistically. The subjects of most of his illustrations were taken from everyday family and small-town life and were often treated with a touch of humour. Though loved by the public, Rockwell’s work was dismissed by most critics as lacking artistic merit and authentic social observation. In 1977 he was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom—the nation’s highest peacetime award—by Pres. Gerald Ford.


Norman was born in Mount Isa, Queensland, Australia to Mervin and Toini Norman. His mother was the daughter of a Finnish carpenter, and his father an electrical engineer. [11] [16] As a youth, he played rugby and cricket and aspired to be a professional surfer. [11] [17] His mother Toini, who had a single-figure handicap, taught the 15-year-old Norman how to golf and allowed him to caddy for her at the Virginia Golf Club in Brisbane. [11] [18] Within about eighteen months, Norman went from a 27 handicap to a scratch handicap. [19] Norman attended Townsville Grammar School in Townsville, Queensland (enrolled 1964) then moved on to Aspley State High School on the north side of Brisbane. [20]

In June 1974, at the age of 19, Norman received media attention for one of the first times. The Canberra Times reported that "the young amateur Greg Norman" was one back of the lead after the first round the Queensland Open. [21]

Early professional career: 1975–1980 Edit

In 1975, at the age of 20, Norman served as assistant professional under Billy McWilliam OAM at Beverley Park Golf Club in Sydney, New South Wales. [22] Shortly thereafter, in the same year, Norman started work as Charlie Earp's trainee in the Royal Queensland Golf Club pro shop, earning A$38 a week. [23] In 1976, six years after he first began to golf, Norman turned professional as a tournament player. That year he earned his first victory at the West Lakes Classic at The Grange Golf Club in Adelaide, South Australia. [24] He joined the European Tour in 1977, and had his first victory in a European event that same season, the Martini International, at the Blairgowrie Club in Scotland. [17]

In 1980, Norman earned a sizable victory in the French Open, winning the tournament by ten shots. [25] He won the Scandinavian Enterprise Open in Sweden with a course record of 64 in the final round. [26] Later in 1980, Norman won the Suntory World Match Play Championship. [27] Norman also won his first Australian Open that year, his first of five wins in that event. [28]

European Tour success and joining the PGA Tour: 1981–1985 Edit

In 1981, Norman finished in 4th place on his debut at the Masters in Augusta, finishing just three strokes behind the winner Tom Watson. [29] Norman had a victory in the 1981 British Masters [30] and he won his third Martini International tournament that year as well. [31] In 1982, Norman was the leading money winner on the European Tour. [32] He won three European events that year, including successfully defending his British Masters title. [33] The following year, Norman joined the U.S. PGA Tour. [24] [34]

In June 1984, Norman won his maiden PGA Tour victory at the Kemper Open, winning by five strokes. [24] He gained worldwide prominence a week later at the 1984 U.S. Open. Norman holed a dramatic 45-foot putt on the 72nd hole to force a playoff with former Masters champion Fuzzy Zoeller. At the next day's 18-hole playoff, Zoeller would earn a 67–75 victory over Norman. [35] [36] He was able to put the defeat behind him with a victory at the Canadian Open the next month in July for his second win of the year. [37]

In 1985, Norman won the Toshiba Australian PGA Championship and the National Panasonic Australian Open. He had two runner-up finishes in the U.S. PGA Tour that year, finishing tied for second place at the Canadian Open and at the Bank of Boston Classic. [38]

First major and the "Saturday Slam" season: 1986 Edit

In 1986, Norman's 11 worldwide victories that year included four wins in Australia and two regular PGA Tour events the Panasonic Las Vegas Invitational and the Kemper Open (for the second time) but 1986 is remembered for the Norman Slam or the Saturday Slam. Norman held the lead for all four majors through 54 holes. This meant he played in the final group for every major and had perhaps the best chance in history of winning the single-season Grand Slam. However, the only major victory Norman earned that year was in the 1986 Open Championship at Turnberry. [39]

At the 1986 Masters, Norman began the final round with a one-stroke lead which he maintained until he double-bogeyed the 10th. After making four consecutive birdies on holes 14 to 17, Norman was tied with Jack Nicklaus going to the 18th. Norman missed a par putt on the 18th that would have sent the two into a sudden-death playoff. [40] [41] At the 1986 U.S. Open at Shinnecock Hills, Norman again led after 54 holes. However, Norman faltered on the final day, finishing with a final round 75 placing him six strokes behind the winner, Raymond Floyd. [39] [38]

Norman finally broke through at the 1986 Open Championship for his first major title. Norman shot a second round of 63 on Friday at Turnberry, tying the record for the lowest ever round at the Open. [42] Only 15 players broke par in the second round. Tom Watson described Norman's feat as "the greatest round ever played in a tournament in which I was a competitor." [43] Norman survived the weekend's brutal conditions at Turnberry, with a final round of 69 to win The Open by five shots. After being presented with the Claret Jug trophy, Norman said: "Outside of Australia, Britain was the first place that accepted me as a professional golfer. To win my first Open in front of the British public is the greatest feeling ever." [44] Norman was again in contention at the 1986 PGA Championship. He was in the lead on the final day, but shot a final-round 76 to finish 2 strokes behind the eventual winner, Bob Tway. [39]

Norman's four wins in Australia in 1986 helped him to finish top of the Australian Order of Merit for the fifth time. He also topped the U.S. PGA Tour money list for the first time that year. [45] In September 1986, Norman won the Panasonic European Open at Sunningdale Golf Club [46] and the following month he had another victory in England, winning his third World Match Play Championship at Wentworth. Norman ended 1986 with eleven worldwide victories [38] and was officially ranked number 1 in the brand new Official World Golf Rankings. [47]

Professional career: 1987–1990 Edit

Norman endured another setback at the 1987 Masters. In his final round on the 18th green, Norman had a 20-foot putt for a birdie that would win the tournament. The ball trickled over the left lip of the cup, missing by millimetres. [48] After Norman's par on the 72nd hole at Augusta, he found himself in a sudden-death playoff with Larry Mize and Seve Ballesteros. On the second playoff hole, with Ballesteros eliminated, Mize holed a 47-yard (140-foot) chip to win the tournament. [49] [50] Norman did, however, win the Australian Masters in February 1987 and the Australian Open later in the year by a record ten shots at Royal Melbourne Golf Club, beating the previous Australian Open record winning margin of eight strokes by Jack Nicklaus in 1971. Norman's 1987 victory at the Australian Open lifted him back above Seve Ballesteros to the top of the Official World Golf Ranking. [51]

Norman had another four wins in Australia in 1988. [38] In the U.S., Norman won the MCI Heritage Golf Classic at Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, in April 1988, inspired by a leukemia-stricken teenager who got his wish to meet Norman and watch him play. The teenage boy was only supposed to watch the golfer for two rounds, but Norman arranged for him to stay until the tournament's completion. After the tournament, Norman awarded the teenager with the trophy. [52] He was inducted into the Sport Australia Hall of Fame in that year. [18]

At the 1989 Masters, Norman missed a 12-foot par putt on the 72nd hole, which would have put him into a playoff with Nick Faldo and Scott Hoch. [53] Norman had another chance at a major in 1989, this time at the Open Championship at Royal Troon. He played a final round of 64, starting his round with six straight birdies, forcing his way into a playoff with Mark Calcavecchia and Wayne Grady. Going into the final playoff hole, Norman and Calcavecchia were tied, but two successive bunker shots by Norman gave Calcavecchia the victory. [54]

Norman won the Doral-Ryder Open and Memorial Tournament in 1990. He also missed the cut for the first time at Augusta National in the 1990 Masters. [38] [55] In the 1990 Open Championship at St Andrews, Norman began with two rounds of 66, leaving himself sharing the lead with Nick Faldo after 36 holes and the pair four shots ahead of the rest of the field. Faldo then shot a third round of 67, but Norman could only manage 76. [56] [57] Norman finished the tournament tied for sixth place, while Faldo won by five shots. [58] Although 1990 was not Norman's strongest majors year, he finished at the top of the PGA Tour money list for the second time in his career and won the Vardon Trophy and Byron Nelson Award. [59] Later that year, he won the Australian Masters in his home country for a final and record sixth time. [28]

Professional career: 1991–2009 Edit

After a career slump in the early 1990s, Norman turned to renowned coach Butch Harmon for help. Together, the two rebuilt Norman's game by solving mechanical problems that had crept into his swing. As a result of this training, Norman earned his second major at Royal St George's in the 1993 Open Championship. There, in ideal conditions, Norman defeated a leaderboard consisting of Nick Faldo, Bernhard Langer and Corey Pavin. Norman's final round 64 was the lowest score by a winner in Open history until Henrik Stenson's 63 at the 2016 Open Championship. [60]

During the following year, 1994, Norman easily beat records for the lowest 18-, 54-, and 72-hole scores at The Players Championship. After opening with a course record-tying 63, he followed with three 67s to give him a final total of 264 strokes, or 24 under par—six strokes better than any previous winner. [61] Norman finished third at the 1995 Masters and was the runner-up at the 1995 U.S. Open. [24] In June, Norman won his second Memorial Tournament, a victory that marked the beginning of one of his best years on the PGA Tour. [38] After his win at the Canon Greater Hartford Open, aided by a chip-in in for eagle on No. 14 in the final round, [62] Norman overtook Nick Price as the number one golfer in the world. Later, he won the NEC World Series of Golf, holing a 70-foot birdie chip shot to defeat Billy Mayfair and Nick Price in a playoff on the first hole. [63] He ultimately held the No. 1 ranking for 331 weeks in his career. [2] He also topped the money list for the third time and was named PGA Player of the Year. [64]

The following year, Norman opened the 1996 Masters Tournament with a course record-tying 63 which put him at the top of the leaderboard. He held the lead through three days of play. Norman took a six-stroke lead into the final round and lost the tournament to Nick Faldo by five strokes, shooting a Sunday 78 to Faldo's 67. [65] In January 1997, Norman won his largest winner's check to date, one million dollars, when he won the Andersen Consulting World Championship of Golf. Norman then won two tournaments in 1997, but they were his final victories on the PGA Tour. In 1998, Norman missed part of the season after suffering hip and shoulder injuries. [38] [66] [67] [68] He contended in the 1999 Masters tournament, tying for the lead with five holes remaining before finishing third, three strokes behind, and again in the 1999 Open Championship, eventually finishing 6th, three strokes behind.

In July 2008, despite not playing in a major for three years, Norman finished nine over par in a tie for third at The Open Championship after being the 54-hole leader by two strokes. At 53, he set the record in becoming the oldest 54-hole leader in a major championship a record that would last for just one year, until 59-year-old Tom Watson led the 2009 Open Championship after three rounds. [69]

Champions Tour Edit

Norman turned 50 in February 2005, but has kept his distance from the senior golf circuit. This is due, in part, because of his focus on business, but also because of lingering hip and back issues. In 2003, Norman said: "Hitting about four million golf balls has created unfortunate wear and tear." [70] He had knee surgery in October 2005 and February 2006. [71] Norman believes his back injuries could have been averted had he been introduced to the concept of golf fitness early in his career. [72]

Norman has earned more than $1 million five times on the U.S. PGA Tour, including three Arnold Palmer Awards as the Tour's leading money winner in 1986, 1990 and 1995. [45] He was also the first person in Tour history to surpass $10 million in career earnings. He has 30 top-10 finishes in majors, or more than 38% of those he has entered. His 20 PGA Tour wins in the 1980s and 1990s ranks second behind Tom Watson (21 total) during this span. [9] He had the lowest total four round score in the history of The Open Championship 267, in 1993, (since broken by Henrik Stenson in 2016), and The Players Championship (264, in 1994). [73] [74]

Norman's dominance over his peers (despite his comparative lack of success in the majors) was probably best expressed in the Official World Golf Rankings: Norman finished the year on top of the ranking list on seven occasions, in 1986, 1987, 1989, 1990, 1995, 1996 and 1997, and was second at the end of 1988, 1993 and 1994. [75] Norman won the PGA Tour of Australia's Order of Merit six times: 1978, 1980, 1983, 1984, 1986 and 1988. He won the European Tour's Order of Merit in 1982, and topped the PGA Tour's money list in 1986, 1990, and 1995. He won the Vardon Trophy for lowest scoring average on the PGA Tour three times: 1989, 1990 and 1994 and was inducted into the World Golf Hall of Fame in 2001. [10] [45] [74]

In 1986, Norman was awarded the BBC Overseas Sports Personality of the Year Award, a feat he replicated in 1993 to join Muhammad Ali as a multiple winner of the award (now also joined by Roger Federer and Usain Bolt). [76] In 2007, Norman was elevated to "Legend" status in the Sport Australia Hall of Fame. [77] He received the 2008 Old Tom Morris Award from the Golf Course Superintendents Association of America, GCSAA's highest honour, at the 2008 Golf Industry Show in Orlando. [78] Norman is a member of The Environmental Institute for Golf's board of trustees and also chairs The institute's advisory council. [14] He was also the recipient of the Golf Writers Association of America's 2008 Charlie Bartlett Award. [15] In 2009 Norman was inducted into the Queensland Sport Hall of Fame. [79]

In 2009, as part of the Q150 celebrations, Greg Norman was announced as one of the Q150 Icons of Queensland for his role as a "sports legend". [80]

In 2015, the PGA of Australia established the Greg Norman Medal, which is awarded to the best Australian male or female golfer in a given year. [3] He also received the Australian Global Icon Award [81] and the National Golf Course Owner's Association Award of Merit both in 2015. [82]

Playing style Edit

Norman had a bold and aggressive style of play. [83] He is widely regarded as one of the best drivers of the golf ball in his era. In the fourteen seasons between 1984 and 1997, Norman finished in the top 20 in total driving on the PGA Tour twelve times and in the top 6 nine times (including first in 1988, 1989 and 1993). [84] When driving long and straight off the tee with a persimmon (wood) clubhead in his prime, Norman intimidated many of his fellow professionals. His high ball flight enabled him to carry the ball very long distances. In 2009, Nick Price said: "The best driver I ever saw was Greg Norman." [85]

Norman founded the Greg Norman Company (originally known as Great White Shark Enterprises (GWSE)) in 1993 after leaving his previous management group, IMG. The now multinational corporation is headquartered in West Palm Beach, Florida. He initially used the Reebok-licensed shark logo for his line of apparel it now represents over a dozen different businesses. The company reports hundreds of millions of dollars in revenue annually. [86] [87] In 2016, the company changed its branding to become the "Greg Norman Company." [88]

The following is a list of all business properties wholly owned by Great White Shark Enterprises.

Greg Norman Golf Course Design Edit

First established in 1987, Greg Norman Golf Course Design (GNGCD) has been responsible for the creation of over 100 golf courses across the world. [87] [89]

Greg Norman Collection Edit

The Greg Norman Collection began in 1992 after Reebok gave Norman his own line of clothing. It reached $100 million in annual sales in 2005. The collection is composed largely of golf-inspired activewear for men and women. [86] [87]

Greg Norman Estates Edit

Greg Norman Estates is a wine company that produces 14 different varietals from Australia, California, and Argentina. The brand is known for attracting attention from Wine Spectator, having earned the number 8 spot in the world with a 1998 Reserve Shiraz.

Greg Norman Real Estate Edit

The real estate division of the company is responsible for a variety of developments and projects including the Medalist Village in Hobe Sound, Florida. The Greg Norman Design Group is a separate wing of the real estate division that deals in interior design. [87] [90] [91]

Great White Shark Opportunity Fund Edit

The Great White Shark Opportunity Fund is an asset-based, debt-lending fund that invests in public and private small- to mid-cap growth companies throughout the world. The platform offers alternative lending and flex capital. [5] [4]

Shark Wake Park Edit

A joint venture between Norman and his son, Greg Norman, Jr., Shark Wake Park is a brand of wakeboarding complexes. The first park opened in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina in June 2016, and a second, larger park opened in June 2019 in West Palm Beach, Florida. [92]

Shark Experience Edit

Norman launched a connected golf cart in 2017 with partners Verizon, GPSi and Club Car. The cart is equipped with touchscreen display for music and GPS while playing a course. [93]

Greg Norman Eyewear Edit

Debuting in 2011, Greg Norman Eyewear provides sunglasses that are designed for use on the golf course. The brand has a partnership with Aspex Eyewear and is distributed in the United States by Aspex. [94]

Greg Norman Australian Prime Edit

Greg Norman Australian Prime is a branded line of premium Wagyu steaks and other beef products. [90]

Greg Norman Australian Grille Edit

Located in Barefoot Landing in North Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, Greg Norman Australian Grille offers fine dining with an Australian theme. [87]

Non-GWSE properties and partnerships Edit

In addition to the wholly owned companies under the company umbrella, there are also numerous partially owned companies and partnerships. For instance, Norman invested in and became the ambassador for Vancouver-based GPS Industries in 2004. [87] GWSE partnered with Kohlberg & Company to acquire Troon Golf, one of the world's largest golf management companies with over 250 golf courses in its portfolio. [90] Norman is also a leading investment partner in Alchemy Global, a firm that seeks investors for sports startups. [95]

Norman is also the brand ambassador and partner to numerous companies including Qantas (a partnership he's been in since 1976), [96] Cobra Golf, [7] OMEGA, [97] and others.

In 2017, Authentic Brands Group become a controlling partner for the consumer products division of The Greg Norman Company. [98] [99]

Philanthropy Edit

The QBE Shootout, formerly known as the Shark Shootout, is a PGA Tour team golf event hosted by Greg Norman. The event is played at the Tiburón Golf Club in Naples, Florida. The Shootout benefits CureSearch National Childhood Cancer Foundation. [13] The Greg Norman Golf Foundation was formed by Greg Norman and his father Merv Norman in 1987. The foundation provides professional guidance and instruction throughout Queensland to school students and those in other educational establishments, children with specific physical disabilities, and junior members of golf clubs. [100] The Environmental Institute for Golf the philanthropic arm of the Golf Course Superintendents Association of America (GCSAA), is a collaborative effort of the environmental and golf communities, dedicated to strengthening the compatibility of golf with the natural environment. Norman became a Trustee of the Institute and a member of its advisory council in 2004. [14]

Broadcasting Edit

On 23 April 2014, Fox Sports announced that Norman would join Joe Buck as its lead commentary team for its coverage of the USGA's championships beginning in 2015. [101] However, following criticism of his performance at the 2015 U.S. Open, Norman was let go in January 2016. [102]

Autobiography Edit

Norman released his autobiography, titled The Way of the Shark, in 2006. [103]

Norman had a brief romance with British tennis player Sue Barker [104] before he met Laura Andrassy, an American flight attendant. Norman married Andrassy in July 1981. They had two children—Greg Norman, Jr. [92] and Morgan-Leigh. [105] They divorced in 2006, with Andrassy receiving a $105 million settlement. He married former World No. 1 tennis player Chris Evert on Paradise Island in the Bahamas in June 2008, but they separated after only 15 months and were subsequently divorced. [106] In November 2010, Norman married interior designer Kirsten Kutner [107] on Necker Island in the British Virgin Islands, with Greg Jr. as his best man. [108] Norman has two grandchildren—Harrison and Hendrix. [107]

In December 2020, Norman was hospitalized with COVID-19. While in hospital, he shared an update on Instagram saying, "It's been an ugly one. I for one am looking forward to getting out of this quarantine and looking forward to building whatever the great future is for 2021 and beyond." [109]

PGA Tour wins (20) Edit

Major championships (2)
Players Championships (1)
Other PGA Tour (17)
No. Date Tournament Winning score Margin of
1 3 Jun 1984 Kemper Open −8 (68-68-71-73=280) 5 strokes Mark O'Meara
2 1 Jul 1984 Canadian Open −10 (73-68-70-67=278) 2 strokes Jack Nicklaus
3 4 May 1986 Panasonic Las Vegas Invitational −27 (73-63-68-64-65=333) 7 strokes Dan Pohl
4 1 Jun 1986 Kemper Open (2) −11 (72-69-70-66=277) Playoff Larry Mize
5 20 Jul 1986 The Open Championship E (74-63-74-69=280) 5 strokes Gordon J. Brand
6 17 Apr 1988 MCI Heritage Golf Classic −13 (65-69-71-66=271) 1 stroke David Frost, Gil Morgan
7 20 Aug 1989 The International 13 pts (5-4-11-13=13) 2 points Clarence Rose
8 3 Sep 1989 Greater Milwaukee Open −19 (64-69-66-70=269) 3 strokes Andy Bean
9 4 Mar 1990 Doral-Ryder Open −15 (68-73-70-62=273) Playoff Tim Simpson, Mark Calcavecchia,
Paul Azinger
10 13 May 1990 Memorial Tournament E (73-74-69=216)* 1 stroke Payne Stewart
11 13 Sep 1992 Canadian Open (2) −8 (73-66-71-70=280) Playoff Bruce Lietzke
12 7 Mar 1993 Doral-Ryder Open (2) −23 (65-68-62-70=265) 4 strokes Paul Azinger, Mark McCumber
13 18 Jul 1993 The Open Championship (2) −13 (66-68-69-64=267) 2 strokes Nick Faldo
14 27 Mar 1994 The Players Championship −24 (63-67-67-67=264) 4 strokes Fuzzy Zoeller
15 4 Jun 1995 Memorial Tournament (2) −19 (66-70-67-66=269) 4 strokes Mark Calcavecchia, David Duval,
Steve Elkington
16 25 Jun 1995 Canon Greater Hartford Open −13 (67-64-65-71=267) 2 strokes Dave Stockton Jr., Kirk Triplett,
Grant Waite
17 27 Aug 1995 NEC World Series of Golf −2 (73-68-70-67=278) Playoff Billy Mayfair, Nick Price
18 3 Mar 1996 Doral-Ryder Open (3) −19 (67-69-67-66=269) 2 strokes Michael Bradley, Vijay Singh
19 29 Jun 1997 FedEx St. Jude Classic −16 (68-65-69-66=268) 1 stroke Dudley Hart
20 24 Aug 1997 NEC World Series of Golf (2) −7 (68-68-70-67=273) 4 strokes Phil Mickelson

*Note: The 1990 Memorial Tournament was shortened to 54 holes due to rain.

PGA Tour playoff record (4–8)

No. Year Tournament Opponent(s) Result
1 1983 Bay Hill Classic Mike Nicolette Lost to par on first extra hole
2 1984 U.S. Open Fuzzy Zoeller Lost 18-hole playoff
Zoeller: −3 (67),
Norman: +5 (75)
3 1984 Western Open Tom Watson Lost to birdie on third extra hole
4 1986 Kemper Open Larry Mize Won with par on sixth extra hole
5 1987 Masters Tournament Seve Ballesteros, Larry Mize Mize won with birdie on second extra hole
Ballesteros eliminated with par on first hole
6 1988 Independent Insurance Agent Open Curtis Strange Lost to birdie on third extra hole
7 1988 Manufacturers Hanover Westchester Classic Seve Ballesteros, David Frost,
Ken Green
Ballesteros won with birdie on first extra hole
8 1989 The Open Championship Mark Calcavecchia, Wayne Grady Calcavecchia won four-hole aggregate playoff
Calcavecchia: −2 (4-3-3-3=13),
Grady: +1 (4-4-4-4=16),
Norman: x (3-3-4-x=x)
9 1990 Doral-Ryder Open Paul Azinger, Mark Calcavecchia,
Tim Simpson
Won with eagle on first extra hole
10 1992 Canadian Open Bruce Lietzke Won with birdie on second extra hole
11 1993 PGA Championship Paul Azinger Lost to par on second extra hole
12 1995 NEC World Series of Golf Billy Mayfair, Nick Price Won with birdie on first extra hole

European Tour wins (14) Edit

Major championships (2)
Other European Tour (12)
No. Date Tournament Winning score Margin of
1 11 Jun 1977 Martini International −11 (70-71-70-66=277) 3 strokes Simon Hobday
2 28 May 1979 Martini International (2) E (75-67-72-74=288) 1 stroke Antonio Garrido, John Morgan
3 11 May 1980 Paco Rabanne Open de France −20 (67-66-68-67=268) 10 strokes Ian Mosey
4 6 Jul 1980 Scandinavian Enterprise Open −12 (76-66-70-64=276) 3 strokes Mark James
5 17 May 1981 Martini International (3) −1 (71-72-72-72=287) 1 stroke Bernhard Langer
6 31 May 1981 Dunlop Masters −15 (72-68-66-67=273) 4 strokes Graham Marsh
7 13 Jun 1982 Dunlop Masters (2) −17 (68-69-65-65=267) 8 strokes Bernhard Langer
8 10 Jul 1982 State Express English Classic −13 (70-70-70-69=279) 1 stroke Brian Marchbank
9 22 Aug 1982 Benson & Hedges International Open −5 (69-74-69-71=283) 1 stroke Bob Charles, Graham Marsh,
Ian Woosnam
10 20 Jul 1986 The Open Championship E (74-63-74-69=280) 5 strokes Gordon J. Brand
11 14 Sep 1986 Panasonic European Open −11 (67-67-69-66=269) Playoff Ken Brown
12 22 May 1988 Lancia Italian Open −18 (69-68-63-70=270) 1 stroke Craig Parry
13 18 Jul 1993 The Open Championship (2) −13 (66-68-69-64=267) 2 strokes Nick Faldo
14 6 Feb 1994 Johnnie Walker Classic −11 (75-70-64-68=277) 1 stroke Fred Couples

European Tour playoff record (1–6)

No. Year Tournament Opponent(s) Result
1 1984 U.S. Open Fuzzy Zoeller Lost 18-hole playoff
Zoeller: −3 (67),
Norman: +5 (75)
2 1986 Panasonic European Open Ken Brown Won with birdie on first extra hole
3 1987 Masters Tournament Seve Ballesteros, Larry Mize Mize won with birdie on second extra hole
Ballesteros eliminated by par on first hole
4 1989 The Open Championship Mark Calcavecchia, Wayne Grady Calcavecchia won four-hole aggregate playoff
Calcavecchia: −2 (4-3-3-3=13),
Grady: +1 (4-4-4-4=16),
Norman: x (3-3-4-x=x)
5 1993 PGA Championship Paul Azinger Lost to par on second extra hole
6 1997 Dubai Desert Classic Richard Green, Ian Woosnam Green won with birdie on first extra hole
7 1997 Peugeot Open de España Mark James Lost to par on third extra hole

Japan Golf Tour wins (2) Edit

No. Date Tournament Winning score Margin of
1 30 Apr 1989 The Crowns −8 (65-68-71-68=272) 3 strokes Blaine McCallister, Koichi Suzuki
2 14 Nov 1993 Sumitomo Visa Taiheiyo Masters −16 (70-67-67-68=272) 1 stroke Yoshi Mizumaki

PGA Tour of Australasia wins (33) Edit

Australian Opens (5)
Other PGA Tour of Australasia (28)
No. Date Tournament Winning score Margin of
1 24 Oct 1976 West Lakes Classic −13 (64-66-67-74=271) 5 strokes David Graham, Graham Marsh
2 22 Jan 1978 Caltex Festival of Sydney Open −14 (73-69-72-64=278) 3 strokes Ian Stanley
3 30 Jan 1978 Traralgon Loy Yang Classic −11 (71-70-69-67=277) 1 stroke Colin Bishop
4 5 Nov 1978 New South Wales Open −13 (64-72-69-70=275) 3 strokes Bill Dunk
5 28 Jan 1979 Traralgon Classic (2) −11 (69-65-71-72=277) 3 strokes Glenn McCully, Ian Stanley
6 9 Dec 1979 Queensland PGA Championship −7 (285) 8 strokes
7 16 Nov 1980 Dunhill Australian Open −4 (71-70-73-70=284) 1 stroke Brian Jones
8 1 Mar 1981 Australian Masters −3 (67-77-71-74=289) 7 strokes Terry Gale, Norio Suzuki
9 20 Feb 1983 Australian Masters (2) −7 (74-67-78-66=285) 4 strokes Bernhard Langer
10 16 Oct 1983 Stefan Queensland Open −11 (67-68-70-72=277) 1 stroke Ossie Moore, Bob Shearer
11 23 Oct 1983 National Panasonic New South Wales Open (2) −4 (75-68-67-68=278) Playoff David Graham
12 12 Feb 1984 Victorian Open −7 (70-71-68-72=281) 2 strokes Bob Shearer
13 19 Feb 1984 Australian Masters (3) −7 (74-71-70-70=285) 3 strokes David Graham, Bernhard Langer
14 4 Nov 1984 Toshiba Australian PGA Championship −11 (66-71-71-69=277) 8 strokes Rodger Davis
15 3 Nov 1985 Toshiba Australian PGA Championship (2) −15 (70-68-66-69=273) 8 strokes Magnus Persson
16 17 Nov 1985 National Panasonic Australian Open (2) −4 (67-71-74=212)* 2 strokes Ossie Moore
17 12 Oct 1986 Stefan Queensland Open (2) −11 (67-70-70-70=277) 6 strokes Peter Senior, Jeff Woodland
18 19 Oct 1986 National Panasonic New South Wales Open (3) −9 (65-70-67-73=275) 5 strokes Lyndsay Stephen
19 25 Oct 1986 West End Jubilee South Australian Open −5 (75-68-75-65=283) 3 strokes David Graham
20 23 Nov 1986 National Panasonic Western Australian Open −12 (72-70-66-68=276) 1 stroke Terry Gale
21 15 Feb 1987 Australian Masters (4) −19 (68-67-68-70=273) 9 strokes Peter Senior
22 30 Nov 1987 National Panasonic Australian Open (3) −15 (70-66-66-71=273) 10 strokes Sandy Lyle
23 31 Jan 1988 Daikyo Palm Meadows Cup −16 (69-66-67-70=272) 1 stroke Tateo Ozaki
24 28 Feb 1988 ESP Open −19 (62-70-69-68=269) 7 strokes Bernhard Langer
25 6 Mar 1988 Australian Tournament Players Championship −18 (67-67-68-68=270) 8 strokes David Graham, Peter Senior
26 23 Oct 1988 Panasonic New South Wales Open (4) −7 (66-69-69-73=277) 1 stroke Craig Parry
27 19 Feb 1989 Australian Masters (5) −12 (69-69-74-68=280) 5 strokes Russell Claydon (a)
28 26 Feb 1989 Australian Tournament Players Championship (2) −12 (70-70-69-67=276) 2 strokes Roger Mackay
29 18 Feb 1990 Australian Masters (6) −19 (68-67-70-68=273) 2 strokes Mike Clayton, Nick Faldo,
John Morse
30 26 Nov 1995 Heineken Australian Open (4) −10 (72-69-69-68=278) 2 strokes Peter McWhinney
31 11 Feb 1996 Ford South Australian Open (2) −4 (74-72-69-69=284) 1 stroke Jean-Louis Guépy
32 24 Nov 1996 Holden Australian Open (5) −8 (67-73-71-69=280) 8 strokes Wayne Grady
33 8 Feb 1998 Greg Norman Holden International −16 (68-73-64-67=272) 2 strokes José María Olazábal

*Note: The 1985 National Panasonic Australian Open was shortened to 54 holes due to rain.

PGA Tour of Australasia playoff record (1–2)

No. Year Tournament Opponent Result
1 1983 National Panasonic New South Wales Open David Graham Won with par on second extra hole
2 1988 Australian PGA Championship Wayne Grady Lost to par on fourth extra hole
3 1997 Holden Australian Open Lee Westwood Lost to par on fourth extra hole

Asia Golf Circuit wins (2) Edit

No. Date Tournament Winning score Margin of
1 25 Feb 1979 Cathay Pacific Hong Kong Open −7 (70-66-69-68=273) 3 strokes Chen Tze-ming, Hsu Chi-san,
Lu Hsi-chuen
2 27 Feb 1983 Cathay Pacific Hong Kong Open (2) −6 (68-66=134)* 3 strokes Mark James

*Note: The 1983 Cathay Pacific Hong Kong Open was shortened to 36 holes due to rain.

Other wins (19) Edit

No. Date Tournament Winning score Margin of
1 17 Apr 1977 Kuzuha International −5 (69-66=135) 2 strokes Kikuo Arai
2 16 Sep 1978 Gilbey's Gin South Seas Classic E (73-71-73-71=288) Playoff Sandy Galbraith
3 12 Oct 1980 Suntory World Match Play Championship 1 up Sandy Lyle
4 18 Sep 1983 Cannes Open −1 (69-74-72-72=287) 2 strokes Corey Pavin
5 9 Oct 1983 Suntory World Match Play Championship (2) 3 & 2 Nick Faldo
6 6 Nov 1983 Kapalua International −16 (67-69-65-67=268) 6 strokes Ben Crenshaw, Scott Simpson,
Lanny Wadkins
7 28 Apr 1985 Australian Skins Challenge $225,000 $30,000 Tom Watson
8 1 Sep 1986 PGA Grand Slam of Golf −2 (70) 2 strokes Fuzzy Zoeller
9 5 Oct 1986 Suntory World Match Play Championship (3) 2 & 1 Sandy Lyle
10 19 Aug 1986 Fred Meyer Challenge
(with Gary Player)
−8 (64) Shared title with Peter Jacobsen and Curtis Strange
11 17 Nov 1993 PGA Grand Slam of Golf (2) +1 (71-74=145) 2 strokes Paul Azinger
12 9 Nov 1994 PGA Grand Slam of Golf (3) −2 (70-66=136) 3 strokes Nick Price
13 22 Aug 1995 Fred Meyer Challenge (2)
(with Brad Faxon)
−13 (65-64=129) Playoff Paul Azinger and Payne Stewart
14 20 Aug 1996 Fred Meyer Challenge (3)
(with Brad Faxon)
−18 (63-61=124) 1 stroke Mark Calcavecchia and Billy Mayfair
15 5 Jan 1997 Andersen Consulting World Championship of Golf 1 up Scott Hoch
16 25 Jul 1997 Telus Skins Game $275,000 $225,000 Fred Couples
17 5 Aug 1997 Fred Meyer Challenge (4)
(with Brad Faxon)
−19 (60-63=123) 3 strokes Jay Haas and Phil Mickelson
18 15 Nov 1998 Franklin Templeton Shark Shootout
(with Steve Elkington)
−27 (67-64-58=189) Playoff John Cook and Peter Jacobsen
19 25 Nov 2001 Skins Game $1,000,000 $1,000,000 Colin Montgomerie, Jesper Parnevik,
Tiger Woods

Other playoff record (3–1)

No. Year Tournament Opponent(s) Result
1 1978 Gilbey's Gin South Seas Classic Sandy Galbraith Won with par on third extra hole
2 1992 Johnnie Walker World Golf Championship Nick Faldo Lost to par on first extra hole
3 1995 Fred Meyer Challenge
(with Brad Faxon)
Paul Azinger and Payne Stewart Won with birdie on first extra hole
4 1998 Franklin Templeton Shark Shootout
(with Steve Elkington)
John Cook and Peter Jacobsen Won with birdie on third extra hole

Wins (2) Edit

Year Championship 54 holes Winning score Margin Runner-up
1986 The Open Championship 1 shot lead E (74-63-74-69=280) 5 strokes Gordon J. Brand
1993 The Open Championship (2) 1 shot deficit −13 (66-68-69-64=267) 2 strokes Nick Faldo

Results timeline Edit

Tournament 1977 1978 1979
Masters Tournament
U.S. Open T48
The Open Championship CUT T29 T10
PGA Championship
Tournament 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989
Masters Tournament 4 T36 T30 T25 T47 T2 T2 T5 T3
U.S. Open T33 T50 2 T15 T12 T51 WD T33
The Open Championship CUT T31 T27 T19 T6 T16 1 T35 T2
PGA Championship T4 T5 T42 T39 CUT 2 70 T9 T12
Tournament 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Masters Tournament CUT CUT T6 T31 T18 T3 2 CUT CUT 3
U.S. Open T5 WD CUT T6 2 T10 CUT CUT
The Open Championship T6 T9 18 1 T11 T15 T7 T36 6
PGA Championship T19 T32 T15 2 T4 T20 T17 T13 CUT
Tournament 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Masters Tournament T11 CUT T36 CUT
U.S. Open CUT T59
The Open Championship T18 T18 CUT T60 T3 CUT
PGA Championship CUT T29 T53 CUT

CUT = missed the halfway cut (3rd round cut in 1977 and 1980 Open Championships)
WD = withdrew
"T" indicates a tie for a place.

Summary Edit

  • Most consecutive cuts made: 18 (1981 Masters – 1985 Open Championship)
  • Longest streak of top-10s: 3 (three times)

Wins (1) Edit

Results timeline Edit

CUT = missed the halfway cut
WD = withdrew
"T" indicates a tie for a place.

QF, R16, R32, R64 = round in which player lost in match play
"T" = tied
NT = no tournament

CUT = missed the halfway cut
"T" indicates a tie for a place
Note: Norman never played in The Tradition.

Norman Mineta’s life story in documentary and biography

Norman Y. Mineta. Courtesy of Mineta Legacy Project

The significance of a dedicated and hardworking politician who is the paragon of leadership and bipartisanship can sometimes get lost and sidelined in the narratives of modern history as new developments and generations come to pass. Norman Mineta may be one such person, a man who officially retired in 2006 after over 50 years of public service. Despite rampant racism against Japanese Americans, Mineta surpassed the prejudice and intolerance, making many breakthroughs in his career: He became the first Asian American mayor of a major city, the first Japanese American elected to Congress from the mainland, and the first Asian American to serve in not just one, but two presidential cabinets.

Although officially retired, Mineta continues at the age of 87 to tirelessly serve others by mentoring Asian Americans interested in pursuing public service, improving relations between Japan and the U.S., and fostering an interest in Japanese culture. His dedication to the city of San Jose in California has been recognized many times through public dedications such as the Norman Y. Mineta San Jose International Airport the Mineta Transportation Institute in San Jose State University and the California State Highway 85, where a portion of the highway is known as the Norman Y. Mineta Highway. He also received the Presidential Medal of Freedom from President George W. Bush in 2006.

His dedication becomes more astonishing after one considers the fact that he and his family were one of the 120,000 Japanese Americans who were forced to live in incarceration camps because of Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor. After the passing of Executive Order 9066 on February 19, 1942, Mineta and his family had to temporarily settle in an assembly center in Santa Anita before moving to a relocation center in Heart Mountain, Wyoming. They were interned for a total of 18 months in these two locations before leaving the camp to live in Evanston, Illinois.

Mineta has never become bitter about this experience. Instead, he recognized the urgency for Asian American representation, and in 1994, he co-founded the Congressional Asian Pacific American Caucus. Although he is a Democrat, he is bipartisan and believes in working with Republicans to reach a compromise and push bills through Congress. Mineta worked tirelessly with Republican senator Alan Simpson to pass the Civil Liberties Act of 1988, a 45-year belated redress and reparation for camp internees. He also co-authored the Americans with Disabilities Act in 1991 and has always been a staunch supporter of gay rights.

For readers who wish to learn more about Norman Mineta, they don’t need to look far. PBS will show a one-hour documentary called Norman Mineta and His Legacy: An American Story, which will premiere on May 20 at 9:00 PM EST (check local listings). Non-fiction writer Andrea Warren has also written a book called Enemy Child: The Story of Norman Mineta, a Boy Imprisoned in a Japanese American Internment Camp During World War II, which focuses on Mineta’s time at Heart Mountain Relocation Camp.

Norman Mineta and His Legacy: An American Story

Director and co-producer Dianne Fukami asked Norman Mineta to be the subject of a documentary for almost 10 years, but his humility proved to be her worst enemy. Her persistence finally paid off in November 2013 when, instead of saying, “Aw, I’m just a regular Joe no one is interested in my story,” he said, “Let’s talk.” It took her four years to complete the film.

Fukami has been directing, writing and producing documentaries about the Asian American experience since 1993. Fukami believed Mineta’s story is a source of inspiration and wanted to share his legacy with others. Making the documentary became more pressing for her and co-producer Debra Nakatomi after the 2016 presidential election.

“[We] realized it was important to raise the visibility of a man who had been subjected to civil liberties violations as a child and who later spent more than 50 years in public service,” Fukami says in the filmmaker statement. “There is an urgency to remind the American public that there are people who serve our government with integrity, practice civility, and believe in bipartisanship.”

This documentary is part of the Mineta Legacy Project, which seeks to focus on six core principles demonstrated through him and his family’s life: immigration, civil liberties and equity, civic engagement, justice and reconciliation, leadership and decision-making, and U.S.-Japan relations. The Stanford Program for International Cross-Cultural Education will also provide a free online curriculum for high school and college students on the day it airs.

The film gives a good broad overview of Norman Mineta’s life and focuses mostly on the highlights of his political career. It features many people he worked with who reflect on his integrity and importance, two of them being former presidents Bill Clinton and George W. Bush. It also features friends and family members. These reflections are balanced out with perspectives from scholars who give explanations about Japanese culture and the Japanese American experience to help put everything into context.

Enemy Child

Andrea Warren first became interested in writing about Heart Mountain War Relocation Center when she made a pit stop at its interpretive center on her way to visit Yellowstone National Park. She was appalled by the harsh and crude conditions Americans were forced to endure all because of their Japanese ancestry.

After learning more about Mineta and the significant role he played in getting the Civil Liberties Act passed, she reached out to him and got his approval on the project. A big deal, considering this is the first book project Mineta has accepted, all because he wants young readers to know more about the incarceration camps in the U.S.

Although the Civil Liberties Act had passed, Americans are not done singling out certain groups and discriminating them, notes Warren. She brings up Muslim Americans as an example since they have been associated with extremist groups that contort Islam for their own agenda and purpose.

“We are a nation of immigrants,” she writes in the introduction of her book, “yet we are still often hostile to those seeking new lives in America.”

Enemy Child is an engaging book and makes the perfect supplement to the documentary. The book goes into greater detail, starting from the turn of the 20th century, about how racism and discriminatory policies affected the Japanese and Asian American community as a whole. It also talks about pressing issues that have divided Japanese Americans, including the refusal to serve in the war and why the Japanese community quietly accepted the injustice.

For the most part, the book is a gold mine for people interested in learning more about internment camps. One fact not mentioned in the book, even towards the end where Warren puts in additional information about the war, is that Italian and German Americans were also put into camps, a fact that deserves some attention since it helps bring some perspective on the war’s outcome.

One of the most interesting stories in the book is how the friendship between Mineta and Alan Simpson started. Another interesting story is how Heart Mountain internees transformed a stretch of land valued for cattle ranching into thriving farmland. Despite all odds, they managed to grow vegetables such as wheat, barley, potatoes, corn, pumpkins and tomatoes. The harvest was so bountiful that they needed to build underground root cellars to store their vegetables.

I have noticed one discrepancy with the book and the documentary regarding his father’s mistaken arrival in Seattle. Other than that, the facts in the book and documentary seem to fall into place. This is a wonderful book that will undoubtedly inspire some children and, possibly, even some adults, to bring positive change into their community as Norman Mineta did against all odds.

Mineta family members and friends at Heart Mountain Relocation Center during World War II. Norman is in front row in the white shirt. Courtesy of the Mineta Family.

PBS will show a one-hour documentary called “Norman Mineta and His Legacy: An American Story,” which will premiere on May 20 at 9:00 PM EST (check local listings).

Everyday life in Norman England

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This edited article about Norman England originally appeared in Look and Learn issue number 403 published on 4 October 1969.

If you had lived in England 800 years ago you would almost certainly have been what you would today describe as a slave. You would have been a serf, which derives from the Latin word for slave, and yours and your family’s lives would have been entirely at the mercy of your Norman lord and master.

If your lord was a cruel man in that land where justice was hard to administer, your sole protector would have been the Church which, although not beyond corruption, at least believed in and spoke out for certain basic rights for men. The two great powers in your life, therefore, would have been your lord and your priest.

The Norman settlers in England were really the first great church builders in our country. The Anglo-Saxons had been just as Christian as the Normans before the great invasion, but the Normans had the money and the organisation to build churches and cathedrals. So it was that in every town and village in the 11th and 12th centuries hammers rang on masonry and architects beavered away over their drawing boards to create the fine monuments to their period, many of which are still with us today.

As it was with churches and cathedrals, so it was with abbeys and manor houses. These quickly became the hub of village and town life. The lord of the manor, a Norman or a Saxon elevated by the Normans, was conditioned to think that the serfs tied to his land were definitely of a lower species. Thus the serfs toiled for their lords like slaves, cultivating their thin strips of land loaned to them in return for working on their master’s land. They worked with scant protection from wind, sun and rain, becoming old and lucky to be alive at 40, since they could count on dying from their first major illness.

Travel was as unlikely a part of people’s lives then as it is likely now. They knew little of life or politics outside the parish where they lived and died and what they did know was conveyed only by word of mouth, since they could neither read nor write.

Generally, the size of the village where such people lived was conditioned by its market. Markets were first held in the naves of churches, the common meeting place of the people, and Sunday was thus the day to shop. When market day was changed to a weekday, primarily because of the protests of the clergy, the market moved out to the street, or market place, where market crosses were erected to ensure that buyers and sellers still had God’s protection.

The home of a serf, or villein as he is sometimes called, was generally a two room hut. The family lived in only one of the two rooms the other housed the oxen or livestock they owned. The floor of the living room, which was kitchen and bedroom for the family as well, was of beaten earth and sparsely furnished.

For beds the family slept on straw, suffering from continuous draughts from the door. Although the hut was windowless it was still cold. This was because the lord guarded his woodlands for hunting, and woe betide anyone who raided the woods for firewood. To keep warm the family slept in their clothes and in their shapeless cowhide shoes. Since to use good water to bathe in was considered a terrible waste, the odour of humanity and cattle in the confined space of the hut leaves little to the imagination.

Cooking was confined to Sundays, and for the rest of the week the family had ale and rye bread for breakfast, bread and cheese and ale for lunch, and bread and milk for supper. Occasionally there was bacon, too, but so infrequently that it was invariably given only to the men, to keep up their strength for work. If they were lucky, the peasant family would eat meat three or four times a year.

The peasant’s diet spotlights the importance of the crops he grew – rye, oats, barley and wheat could all be made into different kinds of bread – and the baker’s importance in the community. In some prosperous villages housewives owned their own ovens for baking, but in most the baker’s shop was simply the place where the communal oven was kept and where the housewives took the dough they had kneaded themselves to be baked into bread.

If parish life was hard, life in the towns also had its problems. The town was a magnet to marauders, bandits and robbers roaming the countryside in Robin Hood fashion, or to the army of some baron who was quarrelling with another. The engineering Normans met this menace by building town walls or strengthening the existing ones left by the Romans. At night the wall gates were shut and soldiers patrolled the parapets, so that the citizens slept more easily in their beds. Many such city walls are still with us today, those at Chester and York being fine examples of medieval pride in building.

Within the town walls day by day life was carried on in a manner which by modern standards was frightening. The wooden houses frequently caught fire, so frequently that even the residents took the precaution of cooking their food in the yard if the weather was fair. When fire broke out only the industry of the neighbours stopped the flames consuming whole streets there were no fire brigades. A house once alight seldom survived it was better to let it burn out and throw up another one, for the job could be completed in a few days.

To walk the town streets at night was an open invitation to violent attack, robbery, perhaps even death. The footpads were certain of one thing – death if they were caught – but in those times life, even one’s own life, was held cheaply.

The pattern for punishment was set by the Conqueror himself. Passionately addicted to hunting, William laid waste the tract of land near Winchester, where he lived, which is still called the New Forest. All the inhabitants were expelled from the 30-mile area so that the King could hunt there their property was seized and there was no compensation. Any hungry father caught hunting the royal deer, wild boar or hare, for food for his family, paid for it dearly by being blinded.

The worst menace by day in the towns must undoubtedly have been the drainage system. Open ducts were made in the centre of the narrow mud streets to eject sewage and household waste into the local river. When these ducts became blocked, which was frequently, the smell must have been alarming. Local people evidently accustomed themselves to it, for we have it from Mediterranean travellers that the most immediately noticeable thing about the English Norman township was the odour from it.

Civil war, great or small, arising from baronial rivalry, was the dread of Anglo-Norman England. In one such war in the 12th century Brabants, Flemings and other foreigners who supported the Empress Mathilda in her fight against King Stephen, overran England. The terror they inspired was so great that we are told that “a considerable body of people would take flight at the sight of three or four horsemen.”

When the Normans caught the invaders they were hung by their feet over smoky fires, or tied by their thumbs some distance from the ground while their feet were scorched by fire, or were thrown into snake pits or sealed up in chests called chambre a crucir (torture chamber) filled with sharp stones.

And while all this inhumanity was being practised, “you might have journeyed,” says the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, “a whole day without seeing a living person in the towns, or in the country one field in a state of tillage. The poor perished with hunger, and many who once possessed property now begged food from door to door. Every man who had the power quitted England. Never was greater sorrow poured upon this land.”

This entry was posted on Tuesday, September 17th, 2013 at 9:58 am and is filed under Architecture, Farming, Historical articles, History, Invasions. You can follow any comments on this article through the RSS 2.0 feed. Both comments and pings are currently closed.

The Normans – Who Were the Normans?

The Normans that invaded England in 1066 came from Normandy in Northern France. However, they were originally Vikings from Scandinavia. From the eighth century Vikings terrorized continental European coastlines with raids and plundering. The proto-Normans instead settled their conquests and cultivated land. Over time they assimilated into medieval European society, abandoned paganism, and upheld conventional Christian norms.

At the beginning of the tenth century, the French King, Charles the Simple, had given some land in the North of France to a Viking chief named Rollo. He hoped that by giving the Vikings their own land in France they would stop attacking French realms. From there they would cultivate land, join the feudal economy, and be a source of manpower the king in times of warfare.

The land became known as Northmannia, the land of the Northmen. It was later shortened to Normandy. The Vikings intermarried with the French and by the year 1000, they were no longer Viking pagans, but French-speaking Christians.

They still held to their Viking enthusiasm of conquest abroad, howerver. In the year 1030 a group of Normans conquered land in Italy. By 1099 they had taken over most of Southern Italy.

Although the Normans are best remembered for their military achievements—particularly in the Crusades—they also showed remarkable skill in government, especially in Italy.

The Normans established many schools, monasteries, cathedrals and churches in both Italy and England and after conquering England built many castles to defend their new land.

Good sources for Norman history include the buildings, many of which survive to today, writings of the men of the time, and the Bayeaux Tapestry, which shows the Norman invasion and conquest of England.

You can also check it out by clicking on the buttons to the left.

Later Education

In 1956, Norman Foster enrolled in the University of Manchester School of Architecture and City Planning. While here, he worked odd jobs to pay for his education. He later graduated from this school in 1961.

After graduating from the university, he earned the Henry Fellowship, offered to him by the Yale School of Architecture. He gladly took on the fellowship studied at Yale until 1963. It was in this year that he graduated with a master&rsquos degree.

Daily Life

A Norman lord is in a broad sense the head of a family, managing a household whose members he has a duty to feed, protect and clothe. He is the head of his court and manages his domain, upholds justice, entertains his guests and keeps the peace. These different duties require a central and functional facility that is strong, imposing and visible. Ultimately, this a castle, from the smallest earth and timber fortifications to the larger strongholds that have stone walls and square keeps with carefully designed internal layouts to accommodate all of these roles.

Important Norman courts formed large households around the resident family, with relatives, fellow men-at-arms, clerks, chaplains and servants. During festivities, jugglers, jesters, actors, acrobats and dancers would also be included. Indeed, since the Carolingian period, the need to organise such a crowd led to the practice of dividing up the different roles by associating them to the rooms they use: the great hall, the chamber, the chapel and the stables.

The great hall, or aula, was supervised by the seneschal (an officer in medieval noble households) and was the public space where the lord would preside when administering justice, organising a variety of ceremonies or entertaining guests at banquets. This was the space where power was demonstrated. The expression of a lord&rsquos wealth was conveyed through wall paintings, expensive fabric, colourful furniture and wide bay windows that let in an abundance of sunlight. The officers of the court performed their duties, assisting the lord in his tasks and making sure the guests were comfortable.

The lord could then retire to his chamber, or camera, which was his private residence - managed by a chamberlain. Inside the chamber he would be joined by his family, as well as his advisers and chambermaids who made sure it was kept in order. It was a place for rest and private meetings but also entertainment, for example, board games, dice games and also jugglers and musicians who told the fashionable stories of the time. The legend of King Arthur was a great literary success that audiences enjoyed listening to at the time. Conversations were exchanged in the Anglo-Norman dialect, which was made up of ancient French and elements of the Saxon language. Speakers of this language were recognisable as members of the ruling aristocracy. The chamber was also a place for private meals. The first meal was dinner, taking place mid-morning, and then the second and last meal of the day, supper, was around four o&rsquoclock in the afternoon. Finally, the lord could take care of his personal hygiene and wash. A bathtub was brought in and many implements were available such as tooth picks, ear picks and tweezers.

The chapel, or capella, was also decorated with mural paintings and it was the household&rsquos private church, where services would govern the order of a typical day for the court. The lord could converse with his chaplain and ask for his counsel for both religious and political matters.

Finally, the stables were managed by the constable in charge of the lord&rsquos horses and, by delegation, the soldiers and knights who protected the household. Other servants of lower rank, such as gate-keepers, ushers, messengers, chamber maids, stable boys etc, would work in all these areas. The seigniorial household was run smoothly.

Occasionally, these different functions were divided into separate buildings, creating a large complex with a great hall. For example, the Exchequer Hall at Caen Castle had an adjoining residential palace and a private chapel within the same enclosure. The period of the Conquest led the Normans to concentrate these functions in the same building, for reasons of both security and symbolic expression. The square keeps accommodated all of these roles. The keeps of Norwich, Rochester, Colchester and Falaise, founded after the Conquest, demonstrate this reorganisation of spaces brought on by these events.


The Band has shared the stage with BB King, Buddy Guy, James Cotton, Junior Wells, Otis Clay, Tower of Power,Five Blind Boys of Alabama, Peter Frampton and many more National Touring Stars.

The Norman Sylvester Band Members

  • Norman “The Boogie Cat” Sylvester – Guitar/Vocal
  • Rob Shoemaker – Bass (for the last 25 years!)
  • Frankie “The Funk Master” Redding – Keyboards
  • Peter Moss and Renato Caranto – Saxophone (Optional Player)
  • Paul “The Groove Machine”Shoemaker: – Drummer

Recording Credits:

Norman and B.B. King

1987 – “Rose City Festival” / LP (Compilation)
1990 – “On the right track” / CD on the Boogie Cat Label
1994 – “It ain’t Nothin’But a Party” / CD Candlelight Label
1999 – “Best of Museum After Hours” / CD (N/W Compilation)
1995 – “Habitat for Humanity” / CD
1995 – “The House that Music Built” (N/W Compilation)
2001 – “All my Friends can Sing” / CD Criminal Records (Compilation)
2001 – “Portland’s Best Blues” / CD Raw Records (Compilation)
2001 – “Live from Portland Saturday Market /CD (Compilation)
2003 – “A Family Affair” / CD on the Boogie Cat Label
2008 – NW Tribute to Ray Charles/Patrick Lamb Productions
2010 – The Norman Sylvester Quartet/ 2 song CD Preview Release

“Put you Hands in the Air – Like you just don’t care and ROCK with the Band!”

Janai started her internship at ABC and witnessed some renowned reporters and news anchor’s work ethics and professionalism.

In August 2011, she landed on her first job in the media as an anchor and reporter for ABC 17. Likewise, in 2014, she started working for the Orlando based WFTV-Channel 9.

She joined ABC News in October 2016 as a correspondent. After two years, she was promoted as a co-anchor on its World News Now and America This Morning news program.