Virginia II - History

Virginia II - History

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Virginia II

(Sch.: t. 187; 1. 60' on keel; b. 18'10"; dph. 8'6"; cpl.
70; a. 6 6-pdrs., 8 4-pdrs.)

The second Virginia—a schooner built in 1797 for the United States Revenue Cutter Service at Portsmouth, Va.—was transferred to the Navy for use in the undeclared naval war against France in the early summer of 1798; and was commissioned on 25 June, Capt. Francis Bright in command.

In August 1798, Virginia received orders to join the frigate Constitution off the eastern seaboard of the United States for operations against suspected French warships and merchantmen. She remained on this station until December, when she was assigned identical duty in the West Indies between St. Christopher Island and Puerto Rico as part of the squadron commanded by Commodore Thomas Truxtun. While helping to defend American interests in the Caribbean, Virginia, assisted by Richmond and Eagle, captured the armed French schooner Louis and her cargo on 26 April 1799. Despite this success, in the following June, the fragile vessel was declared unfit for further naval service and was returned to the Revenue Cutter Service.

History & Social Science

At the January 28, 2021 Virginia Board of Education meeting, the Virginia Department of Education (VDOE) was authorized to proceed with the History and Social Science Standards of Learning and Curriculum Framework review process. For more information, refer to History and Social Science Standards of Learning and Curriculum Framework Revision and Superintendent's Memo #025-21 -This is a Word document. (Word)

Virginia Civics Education Survey for High School Students

VDOE is administering the Virginia Civics Education Survey for High School Students in the Spring of 2021 as required by Item 134.I. of the Virginia General Assembly&rsquos 2019 Appropriation Act and in collaboration with the Virginia Commonwealth University Survey and Evaluation Research Lab (VCU-SERL). The purpose of the survey is to understand how students feel about civics and government education and also to get a sense of their community engagement. Watch the Civics Survey Webinar to learn more about survey administration.

High school students at participating schools will be asked to provide their perspectives on the content and quality of their civics and government courses, their level of participation in community activities within the past year, and how often they discuss current events or politics with others. The results of the survey will be presented to policymakers and used to improve civics and government education in Virginia public schools.

A review copy of the survey can be accessed through the link below:

The History & Social Science Standards of Learning (SOL) are designed to develop knowledge and skills in history, geography, civics and economics to prepare students for informed participation in shaping the nation’s future.


Virginia Edit

The name "Virginia" is the oldest designation for English claims in North America. In 1584, Sir Walter Raleigh sent Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe to explore what is now the North Carolina coast, and they returned with word of a regional king (weroance) named Wingina, who ruled a land supposedly called Wingandacoa.

The name Virginia for a region in North America may have been originally suggested by Sir Walter Raleigh, who named it for Queen Elizabeth I, in approximately 1584. [5] In addition the term Wingandacoa may have influenced the name Virginia." [6] [7] On his next voyage, Raleigh learned that while the chief of the Secotans was indeed called Wingina, the expression wingandacoa heard by the English upon arrival actually meant "What good clothes you wear!" in Carolina Algonquian, and was not the name of the country as previously misunderstood. [8] "Virginia" was originally a term used to refer to North America's entire eastern coast from the 34th parallel (close to Cape Fear) north to 45th parallel. This area included a large section of Canada and the shores of Acadia. [9]

The colony was also known as the Virginia Colony, the Province of Virginia, and occasionally as the Dominion and Colony of Virginia or His Majesty's Most Ancient Colloney[sic] and Dominion of Virginia [10] [11]

Old Dominion Edit

It is said, according to tradition, that in gratitude for the loyalty of Virginians to the crown during the English Civil War, Charles II gave it the title of "Old Dominion". [12] [13] The colony seal stated from Latin (en dat virginia quartam), in English 'Behold, Virginia gives the fourth', with Virginia claimed as the fourth English dominion after England, France, Scotland and Ireland.

The state of Virginia maintains "Old Dominion" as its state nickname. The athletic teams of the University of Virginia are known as the "Cavaliers," referring to supporters of Charles II, and Virginia has another state public university called "Old Dominion University".

Although Spain, France, Sweden, and the Netherlands all had competing claims to the region, none of these prevented the English from becoming the first European power to colonize successfully the Mid-Atlantic coastline. Earlier attempts had been made by the Spanish in what is now Georgia (San Miguel de Gualdape, 1526–27 several Spanish missions in Georgia between 1568 and 1684), South Carolina (Santa Elena, 1566–87), North Carolina (Joara, 1567–68) and Virginia (Ajacán Mission, 1570–71) and by the French in South Carolina (Charlesfort, 1562–63). Farther south, the Spanish colony of Spanish Florida, centered on St. Augustine, was established in 1565, while to the north, the French were establishing settlements in what is now Canada (Charlesbourg-Royal briefly occupied 1541–43 Port Royal, established in 1605).

Elizabethan colonization attempts in the New World (1584–1590) Edit

In 1585, Sir Walter Raleigh sent his first colonisation mission to the island of Roanoke (in present-day North Carolina), with over 100 male settlers. However, when Sir Francis Drake arrived at the colony in summer 1586, the colonists opted to return to England, due to lack of supply ships, abandoning the colony. Supply ships arrived at the now-abandoned colony later in 1586 15 soldiers were left behind to hold the island, but no trace of these men was later found. [14]

In 1587, Raleigh sent another group to again attempt to establish a permanent settlement. The expedition leader, John White, returned to England for supplies that same year but was unable to return to the colony due to war between England and Spain. When he finally did return in 1590, he found the colony abandoned. The houses were intact, but the colonists had completely disappeared. Although there are a number of theories about the fate of the colony, it remains a mystery and has come to be known as the "Lost Colony". Two English children were born in this colony the first was named Virginia Dare – Dare County, North Carolina, was named in honor of the baby, who was among those whose fate is unknown. The word Croatoan was found carved into a tree, the name of a tribe on a nearby island. [14]

Virginia Company (1606–1624) Edit

Following the failure of the previous colonisation attempts, England resumed attempts to set up a number of colonies. This time joint-stock companies were used rather than giving extensive grants to a landed proprietor such as Gilbert or Raleigh. [3]

Charter of 1606 – creation of London and Plymouth companies Edit

King James granted a proprietary charter to two competing branches of the Virginia Company, which were supported by investors. These were the Plymouth Company and the London Company. [15] By the terms of the charter, the Plymouth Company was permitted to establish a colony of 100 miles (160 km) square between the 38th parallel and the 45th parallel (roughly between Chesapeake Bay and the current U.S.–Canada border). The London Company was permitted to establish between the 34th parallel and the 41st parallel (approximately between Cape Fear and Long Island Sound), and also owned a large portion of Atlantic and Inland Canada. In the area of overlap, the two companies were not permitted to establish colonies within one hundred miles of each other. [15] During 1606, each company organized expeditions to establish settlements within the area of their rights.

The London company formed Jamestown in its exclusive territory, whilst the Plymouth company formed the Popham Colony in its exclusive territory near what is now Phippsburg, Maine. [16]

Jamestown and the London company Edit

The London Company hired Captain Christopher Newport to lead its expedition. On December 20, 1606, he set sail from England with his flagship, the Susan Constant, and two smaller ships, the Godspeed, and the Discovery, with 105 men and boys, plus 39 sailors. [17] After an unusually long voyage of 144 days, they arrived at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay and came ashore at the point where the southern side of the bay meets the Atlantic Ocean, an event that has come to be called the "First Landing". They erected a cross and named the point of land Cape Henry, in honor of Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, the eldest son of King James. [ citation needed ]

Their instructions were to select a location inland along a waterway where they would be less vulnerable to the Spanish or other Europeans also seeking to establish colonies. They sailed westward into the Bay and reached the mouth of Hampton Roads, stopping at a location now known as Old Point Comfort. Keeping the shoreline to their right, they then ventured up the largest river, which they named the James, for their king. After exploring at least as far upriver as the confluence of the Appomattox River at present-day Hopewell, they returned downstream to Jamestown Island, which offered a favorable defensive position against enemy ships and deep water anchorage adjacent to the land. Within two weeks they had constructed their first fort and named their settlement Jamestown. [ citation needed ]

In addition to securing gold and other precious minerals to send back to the waiting investors in England, the survival plan for the Jamestown colonists depended upon regular supplies from England and trade with the Native Americans. The location they selected was largely cut off from the mainland and offered little game for hunting, no fresh drinking water, and very limited ground for farming. Captain Newport returned to England twice, delivering the First Supply and the Second Supply missions during 1608, and leaving the Discovery for the use of the colonists. However, death from disease and conflicts with the Natives Americans took a fearsome toll on the colonists. Despite attempts at mining minerals, growing silk, and exporting the native Virginia tobacco, no profitable exports had been identified, and it was unclear whether the settlement would survive financially. [ citation needed ]

Powhatan Confederacy Edit

The Powhatan Confederacy was a confederation of numerous linguistically related tribes in the eastern part of Virginia. The Powhatan Confederacy controlled a territory known as Tsenacommacah, which roughly corresponded with the Tidewater region of Virginia. It was in this territory that the English established Jamestown. At the time of the English arrival, the Powhatan were led by the paramount chief Wahunsenacawh.

Popham colony and Plymouth company Edit

On May 31, 1607, about 100 men and boys left England for what is now Maine. Approximately three months later, the group landed on a wooded peninsula where the Kennebec River meets the Atlantic Ocean and began building Fort St. George. By the end of the year, due to limited resources, half of the colonists returned to England. Late the next year, the remaining 45 sailed home, and the Plymouth company fell dormant. [18]

Charter of 1609 – the London company expands Edit

In 1609, with the abandonment of the Plymouth Company settlement, the London Company's Virginia charter was adjusted to include the territory north of the 34th parallel and south of the 39th parallel, with its original coastal grant extended "from sea to sea". Thus, at least according to James I's writ, the Virginia Colony in its original sense extended to the coast of the Pacific Ocean, in what is now California, with all the states in between (Kentucky, Missouri, Colorado, Utah, etc.) belonging to Virginia. For practical purposes, though, the colonists rarely ventured far inland to what was known as "The Virginia Wilderness", although the concept itself helped renew the interest of investors, and additional funds enabled an expanded effort, known as the Third Supply. [ citation needed ]

1609 Third Supply and Bermuda Edit

For the Third Supply, the London Company had a new ship built. The Sea Venture was specifically designed for emigration of additional colonists and transporting supplies. It became the flagship of the Admiral of the convoy, Sir George Somers. The Third Supply was the largest to date, with eight other ships joining the Sea Venture. The new Captain of the Sea Venture was the mission's Vice-Admiral, Christopher Newport. Hundreds of new colonists were aboard the ships. However, weather was to drastically affect the mission. [ citation needed ]

A few days out of London, the nine ships of the third supply mission encountered a massive hurricane in the Atlantic Ocean. They became separated during the three days the storm lasted. Admiral Somers had the new Sea Venture, carrying most of the supplies of the mission, deliberately driven aground onto the reefs of Bermuda to avoid sinking. However, while there was no loss of life, the ship was wrecked beyond repair, stranding its survivors on the uninhabited archipelago, to which they laid claim for England. [19]

The survivors at Bermuda eventually built two smaller ships and most of them continued on to Jamestown, leaving a few on Bermuda to secure the claim. The Company's possession of Bermuda was made official in 1612, when the third and final charter extended the boundaries of 'Virginia' far enough out to sea to encompass Bermuda. [20] Bermuda has since been known officially also as The Somers Isles (in commemoration of Admiral Somers). The shareholders of the Virginia Company spun off a second company, the Somers Isles Company, which administered Bermuda from 1615 to 1684. [ citation needed ]

Upon their arrival at Jamestown, the survivors of the Sea Venture discovered that the 10-month delay had greatly aggravated other adverse conditions. Seven of the other ships had arrived carrying more colonists, but little in the way of food and supplies. Combined with a drought, and hostile relations with the Native Americans, the loss of the supplies that had been aboard the Sea Venture resulted in the Starving Time in late 1609 to May 1610, during which over 80% of the colonists perished. Conditions were so adverse it appears, from skeletal evidence, that the survivors engaged in cannibalism. [21] The survivors from Bermuda had brought few supplies and food with them, and it appeared to all that Jamestown must be abandoned and it would be necessary to return to England. [ citation needed ]

Abandonment and Fourth supply Edit

During this time, perhaps 5000 Virginians died of disease or were killed in the Indian massacre of 1622. [22]

Samuel Argall was the captain of one of the seven ships of the Third Supply that had arrived at Jamestown in 1609 after becoming separated from the Sea Venture, whose fate was unknown. Depositing his passengers and limited supplies, he returned to England with word of the plight of the colonists at Jamestown. The King authorized another leader, Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, later better known as "Lord Delaware", to have greater powers, and the London Company organized another supply mission. They set sail from London on April 1, 1610.

Just after the survivors of the Starving Time and those who had joined them from Bermuda had abandoned Jamestown, the ships of the new supply mission sailed up the James River with food, supplies, a doctor, and more colonists. Lord Delaware was determined that the colony was to survive, and he intercepted the departing ships about 10 miles (16 km) downstream of Jamestown. The colonists thanked Providence for the Colony's salvation.

West proved far harsher and more belligerent toward the Indians than any of his predecessors, engaging in wars of conquest against them. He first sent Gates to drive off the Kecoughtan from their village on July 9, 1610, then gave Chief Powhatan an ultimatum to either return all English subjects and property, or face war. Powhatan responded by insisting that the English either stay in their fort or leave Virginia. Enraged, De la Warr had the hand of a Paspahegh captive cut off and sent him to the paramount chief with another ultimatum: Return all English subjects and property, or the neighboring villages would be burned. This time, Powhatan did not even respond.

First Anglo-Powhatan War (1610–1614), John Rolfe and Pocahontas Edit

On August 9, 1610, tired of waiting for a response from Powhatan, West sent George Percy with 70 men to attack the Paspahegh capital, burning the houses and cutting down their cornfields. They killed 65 to 75, and captured one of Wowinchopunk's wives and her children. Returning downstream, the English threw the children overboard and shot out "their Braynes in the water". The queen was put to the sword in Jamestown. The Paspahegh never recovered from this attack and abandoned their town. Another small force sent with Samuel Argall against the Warraskoyaks found that they had already fled, but he destroyed their abandoned village and cornfields as well. This event triggered the first Anglo-Powhatan War.

Among the individuals who had briefly abandoned Jamestown was John Rolfe, a Sea Venture survivor who had lost his wife and son in Bermuda. He was a businessman from London who had some untried seeds for new, sweeter strains of tobacco with him, as well as some untried marketing ideas. It would turn out that John Rolfe held the key to the Colony's economic success. By 1612, Rolfe's new strains of tobacco had been successfully cultivated and exported, establishing a first cash crop for export. Plantations and new outposts sprung up starting with Henricus, initially both upriver and downriver along the navigable portion of the James, and thereafter along the other rivers and waterways of the area. The settlement at Jamestown could finally be considered permanently established. [23]

A period of peace followed the marriage in 1614 of colonist John Rolfe to Pocahontas, the daughter of Algonquian chief Powhatan.

Second Anglo-Powhatan War (1622–1632) Edit

Indian Massacre of 1622 Edit

The relations with the Natives took a turn for the worse after the death of Pocahontas in England and the return of John Rolfe and other colonial leaders in May 1617. Disease, poor harvests and the growing demand for tobacco lands caused hostilities to escalate.

After Wahunsenacawh's death in 1618, he was soon succeeded by his own younger brother, Opechancanough. He maintained friendly relations with the Colony on the surface, negotiating with them through his warrior Nemattanew, but by 1622, after Nemattanew had been slain, Opechancanough was ready to order a limited surprise attack on them, hoping to persuade them to move on and settle elsewhere.

Chief Opechancanough organized and led a well-coordinated series of surprise attacks on multiple English settlements along both sides of a 50-mile (80 km) long stretch of the James River, which took place early on the morning of March 22, 1622. This event came to be known as the Indian Massacre of 1622 and resulted in the deaths of 347 colonists (including men, women, and children) and the abduction of many others. The Massacre caught most of the Virginia Colony by surprise and virtually wiped out several entire communities, including Henricus and Wolstenholme Town at Martin's Hundred.

Jamestown was spared from destruction, however, due to a Virginia Indian boy named Chanco who, after learning of the planned attacks from his brother, gave warning to colonist Richard Pace with whom he lived. Pace, after securing himself and his neighbors on the south side of the James River, took a canoe across the river to warn Jamestown, which narrowly escaped destruction, although there was no time to warn the other settlements.

A year later, Captain William Tucker and Dr. John Potts worked out a truce with the Powhatan and proposed a toast using liquor laced with poison. 200 Virginia Indians were killed or made ill by the poison and 50 more were slaughtered by the colonists. For over a decade, the English settlers killed Powhatan men and women, captured children and systematically razed villages, seizing or destroying crops.

By 1634, a six-mile-long palisade was completed across the Virginia Peninsula. The new palisade provided some security from attacks by the Virginia Indians for colonists farming and fishing lower on the Peninsula from that point.

On April 18, 1644, Opechancanough again tried to force the colonists to abandon the region with another series of coordinated attacks, killing almost 500 colonists. However, this was a much less devastating portion of the growing population than had been the case in the 1622 attacks.

Crown colony (1624–1652) Edit

In 1620, a successor to the Plymouth Company sent colonists to the New World aboard the Mayflower. Known as Pilgrims, they successfully established a settlement in what became Massachusetts. The portion of what had been Virginia north of the 40th parallel became known as New England, according to books written by Captain John Smith, who had made a voyage there.

In 1624, the charter of the Virginia Company was revoked by King James I and the Virginia Colony was transferred to royal authority in the form of a crown colony. Subsequent charters for the Maryland Colony in 1632 and to the eight Lords Proprietors of the Province of Carolina in 1663 and 1665 further reduced the Virginia Colony to roughly the coastal borders it held until the American Revolution. (The exact border with North Carolina was disputed until surveyed by William Byrd II in 1728.)

Third Anglo-Powhatan War (1644–1646) Edit

After twelve years of peace following the Indian Wars of 1622–1632, another Anglo–Powhatan War began on March 18, 1644, as a last effort by the remnants of the Powhatan Confederacy, still under Opechancanough, to dislodge the English settlers of the Virginia Colony. Around 500 colonists were killed, but that number represented a relatively low percent of the overall population, as opposed to the earlier massacre (the 1622 attack had wiped out a third that of 1644 barely a tenth). However, Opechancanough, still preferring to use Powhatan tactics, did not make any major follow-up to this attack.

This was followed by another effort by the settlers to decimate the Powhatan. In July, they marched against the Pamunkey, Chickahominy, and Powhatan proper and south of the James, against the Appomattoc, Weyanoke, Warraskoyak, and Nansemond, as well as two Carolina tribes, the Chowanoke and Secotan.

In February - March 1645, the colony ordered the construction of four frontier forts: Fort Charles at the falls of the James, Fort James on the Chickahominy, Fort Royal at the falls of the York and Fort Henry at the falls of the Appomattox, where the modern city of Petersburg is located.

In August 1645, the forces of Governor William Berkeley stormed Opechancanough's stronghold. All captured males in the village over age 11 were deported to Tangier Island. [24] Opechancanough, variously reported to be 92 to 100 years old, was taken to Jamestown. While a prisoner, Opechancanough was shot in the back and killed by a soldier assigned to guard him. [25] His death resulted in the disintegration of the Powhatan Confederacy into its component tribes, whom the colonists continued to attack.

Treaty of 1646 Edit

In the peace treaty of October 1646, the new weroance, Necotowance, and the subtribes formerly in the Confederacy, each became tributaries to the King of England. At the same time, a racial frontier was delineated between Indian and English settlements, with members of each group forbidden to cross to the other side except by a special pass obtained at one of the newly erected border forts. The extent of the Virginia colony open to patent by English colonists was defined as: All the land between the Blackwater and York rivers, and up to the navigable point of each of the major rivers – which were connected by a straight line running directly from modern Franklin on the Blackwater, northwesterly to the Appomattoc village beside Fort Henry, and continuing in the same direction to the Monocan village above the falls of the James, where Fort Charles was built, then turning sharp right, to Fort Royal on the York (Pamunkey) river. Necotowance thus ceded the English vast tracts of still-uncolonized land, much of it between the James and Blackwater. English settlements on the peninsula north of the York and below the Poropotank were also allowed, as they had already been there since 1640.

English Civil War and Commonwealth (1642–1660) Edit

While the newer, Puritan colonies, most notably Massachusetts, were dominated by Parliamentarians, the older colonies sided with the Crown. The Virginia Company's two settlements, Virginia and Bermuda (Bermuda's Independent Puritans were expelled as the Eleutheran Adventurers, settling the Bahamas under William Sayle), Antigua and Barbados were conspicuous in their loyalty to the Crown, and were singled out by the Rump Parliament in An Act for prohibiting Trade with the Barbadoes, Virginia, Bermuda and Antego in October 1650. This dictated that:

[D]ue punishment [be] inflicted upon the said Delinquents, do[es] Declare all and every the said persons in Barbada's, Antego, Bermuda's and Virginia, that have contrived, abetted, aided or assisted those horrid Rebellions, or have since willingly joyned with them, to be notorious Robbers and Traitors, and such as by the Law of Nations are not to be permitted any maner of Commerce or Traffique with any people whatsoever and do[es] forbid to all maner of persons, Foreiners, and others, all maner of Commerce, Traffique and Correspondency whatsoever, to be used or held with the said Rebels in the Barbada's, Bermuda's, Virginia and Antego, or either of them.

The Act also authorised Parliamentary privateers to act against English vessels trading with the rebellious colonies: "All Ships that Trade with the Rebels may be surprized. Goods and tackle of such ships not to be embezeled, till judgement in the Admiralty Two or three of the Officers of every ship to be examined upon oath."

Virginia's population swelled with Cavaliers during and after the English Civil War. Under the tenure of Crown Governor William Berkeley (1642–1652 1660–1677), the population expanded from 8,000 in 1642 to 40,000 in 1677. [26] Despite the resistance of the Virginia Cavaliers, Virginian Puritan Richard Bennett was made Governor answering to Cromwell in 1652, followed by two more nominal "Commonwealth Governors". Nonetheless, the colony was rewarded for its loyalty to the Crown by Charles the II following the Restoration when he dubbed it the Old Dominion. [ citation needed ]

Crown colony restoration (1660–1775) Edit

With the Restoration in 1660 the Governorship returned to its previous holder, Sir William Berkeley.

In 1676, Bacon's Rebellion challenged the political order of the colony. While a military failure, its handling did result in Governor Berkeley being recalled to England.

In 1679, the Treaty of Middle Plantation was signed between King Charles II and several Native American groups.

Williamsburg era Edit

Virginia was the largest, richest, and most influential of the American colonies, where conservatives were in full control of the colonial and local governments. At the local level, Church of England parishes handled many local affairs, and they in turn were controlled not by the minister, but rather by a closed circle of rich landowners who comprised the parish vestry. Ronald L. Heinemann emphasizes the ideological conservatism of Virginia while noting there were also religious dissenters who were gaining strength by the 1760s:

The tobacco planters and farmers of Virginia adhered to the concept of a hierarchical society that they or their ancestors had brought with them from England. Most held to the general idea of a Great Chain of Being: at the top were God and his heavenly host next came kings. who were divinely sanctioned to rule, then an hereditary aristocracy who were followed in descending order by wealthy landed gentry, small, independent farmers, tenant farmers, servants. Aspirations to rise above one's station in life were considered a sin. [27]

In actual practice, colonial Virginia never had a bishop to represent God nor a hereditary aristocracy with titles like 'duke' or 'baron'. However, it did have a royal governor appointed by the king, as well as a powerful landed gentry. The status quo was strongly reinforced by what Jefferson called "feudal and unnatural distinctions" that were vital to the maintenance of aristocracy in Virginia. He targeted laws such as entail and primogeniture by which the oldest son inherited all the land. As a result increasingly large plantations, worked by white tenant farmers and by black slaves, gained in size and wealth and political power in the eastern ("Tidewater") tobacco areas. Maryland and South Carolina had similar hierarchical systems, as did New York and Pennsylvania. [28] During the Revolutionary era, all such laws were repealed by the new states. [29] The most fervent Loyalists left for Canada or Britain or other parts of the Empire. They introduced primogeniture in Upper Canada (Ontario) in 1792, and it lasted until 1851. Such laws lasted in England until 1926. [30]

American Revolution Edit

As the English expanded out from Jamestown, encroachment of the new arrivals and their ever-growing numbers on what had been Indian lands resulted in several conflicts with the Virginia Indians. For much of the 17th century, English contact and conflict were mostly with the Algonquian peoples that populated the coastal regions, primarily the Powhatan Confederacy. Following a series of wars and the decline of the Powhatan as a political entity, the colonists expanded westward in the late 17th and 18th centuries, encountering the Shawnee, Iroquoian-speaking peoples such as the Nottoway, Meherrin, Iroquois and Cherokee, as well as Siouan-speaking peoples such as the Tutelo, Saponi, and Occaneechi.

Iroquois Confederacy Edit

As the English settlements expanded beyond the Tidewater territory traditionally occupied by the Powhatan, they encountered new groups with which there had been minimal relations with the Colony.

In the late 17th century, the Iroquois Confederacy expanded into the Western region of Virginia as part of the Beaver Wars. They arrived shortly before the English settlers, and displaced the resident Siouan tribes.

Lt. Gov. Alexander Spotswood made further advances in policy with the Virginia Indians along the frontier. In 1714, he established Fort Christanna to help educate and trade with several tribes with which the colony had friendly relations, as well as to help protect them from hostile tribes. In 1722, he negotiated the Treaty of Albany.

Lord Dunmore's War Edit

The cultural geography of colonial Virginia gradually evolved, with a variety of settlement and jurisdiction models experimented with. By the late 17th century and into the 18th century, the primary settlement pattern was based on plantations (to grow tobacco), farms, and some towns (mostly ports or courthouse villages).

Early settlements Edit

The fort at Jamestown, founded in 1607, remained the primary settlement of the colonists for several years. A few strategic outposts were constructed, including Fort Algernon (1609) at the entrance to the James River.

Early attempts to occupy strategic locations already inhabited by natives at what is now Richmond and Suffolk failed owing to native resistance.

A short distance farther up the James, in 1611, Thomas Dale began the construction of a progressive development at Henricus on and about what was later known as Farrars Island. Henricus was envisioned as possible replacement capital for Jamestown, and was to have the first college in Virginia. (The ill-fated Henricus was destroyed during the Indian Massacre of 1622). In addition to creating the new settlement at Henricus, Dale also established the port town of Bermuda Hundred, as well as "Bermuda Cittie" (sic) in 1613, now part of Hopewell, Virginia. He began the excavation work at Dutch Gap, using methods he had learned while serving in Holland.

"Hundreds" Edit

Once tobacco had been established as an export cash crop, investors became more interested and groups of them united to create largely self-sufficient "hundreds." The term "hundred" is a traditional English name for an administrative division of a shire (or county) to define an area which would support one hundred heads of household. [31] In the colonial era in Virginia, the "hundreds" were large developments of many acres, necessary to support land hungry tobacco crops. The "hundreds" were required to be at least several miles from any existing community. Soon, these patented tracts of land sprang up along the rivers. The investors sent shiploads of settlers and supplies to Virginia to establish the new developments. The administrative centers of Virginia's hundreds were essentially small towns or villages, and were often palisaded for defense.

An example was Martin's Hundred, located downstream from Jamestown on the north bank of the James River. It was sponsored by the Martin's Hundred Society, a group of investors in London. It was settled in 1618, and Wolstenholme Towne was its administrative center, named for Sir John Wolstenholme, one of the investors.

Bermuda Hundred (now in Chesterfield County) and Flowerdew Hundred (now in Prince George County) are other names which have survived over centuries. Others included Berkeley Hundred, Bermuda Nether Hundred, Bermuda Upper Hundred, Smith's Hundred, Digges Hundred, West Hundred and Shirley Hundred (and, in Bermuda, Harrington Hundreds).

Including the creation of the "hundreds", the various incentives to investors in the Virginia Colony finally paid off by 1617. By this time, the colonists were exporting 50,000 pounds of tobacco to England a year and were beginning to generate enough profit to ensure the economic survival of the colony.

Cities, Shires, and Counties Edit

In 1619, the plantations and developments were divided into four "incorporations" or "citties" (sic), as they were called. These were Charles Cittie, Elizabeth Cittie, Henrico Cittie, and James Cittie, which included the relatively small seat of government for the colony at Jamestown Island. Each of the four "citties" (sic) extended across the James River, the main conduit of transportation of the era. Elizabeth Cittie, know initially as Kecoughtan (a Native word with many variations in spelling by the English), also included the areas now known as South Hampton Roads and the Eastern Shore.

In 1634, a new system of local government was created in the Virginia Colony by order of the King of England. Eight shires were designated, each with its own local officers. Within a few years, the shires were renamed counties, a system that has remained to the present day.

Later settlements Edit

In 1630, under the governorship of John Harvey, the first settlement on the York River was founded. In 1632, the Virginia legislature voted to build a fort to link Jamestown and the York River settlement of Chiskiack and protect the colony from Indian attacks. In 1634, a palisade was built near Middle Plantation. This wall stretched across the peninsula between the York and James rivers and protected the settlements on the eastern side of the lower Peninsula from Indians. The wall also served to contain cattle.

In 1699, a new capital was established and built at Middle Plantation, soon renamed Williamsburg.

Northern Neck Proprietary Edit

In the period following the English Civil War, the exiled King Charles II of England hoped to shore up the loyalty of several of his supporters by granting them a significant area of mostly uncharted land to control as a Proprietary in Virginia (a claim that would only be valid were the king to return to power). While under the jurisdiction of the Virginia Colony, the proprietary maintained complete control of the granting of land within that territory (and revenues obtained from it) until after the American Revolution. The grant was for the land between the Rappahannock and Potomac Rivers, which included the titular Northern Neck, but as time went on also would include all of what is today Northern Virginia and into West Virginia. Due to ambiguities of the text of the various grants causing disputes between the proprietary and the colonial government, the tract was finally demarcated via the Fairfax Line in 1746.

In the initial years under the Virginia Company, the colony was governed by a council, headed by a council President. From 1611 to 1618, under the orders of Sir Thomas Dale, the settlers of the colony were under a regime of civil law that became known as Dale's Code. [32]

Under a charter from the company in 1618, a new model of governance was put in place in 1619, which created a new House of Burgesses. [32] On July 30, 1619, burgesses met at Jamestown Church as the first elected representative legislative assembly in the New World. [32] The legal system in the colony was thereafter based around the English common law.

For much of the history of the Royal Colony, the formal appointed governor was absentee, often remaining in England. In his stead, a series of acting or Lieutenant Governors who were physically present held actual authority. In the later years of its history, as it became increasingly civilized, more governors made the journey.

The first settlement in the colony, Jamestown, served as the capital and main port of entry from its founding until 1699. During this time, a series of statehouses (capitols) were used and subsequently consumed by fires (both accidental, and in the case of Bacon's Rebellion, intentional). Following such a fire, in 1699 the capital was relocated inland, away from the swampy clime of Jamestown to Middle Plantation, soon to be renamed Williamsburg.

The capital of Virginia remained in Williamsburg, until it was moved further inland to Richmond in 1779 during the American Revolution.

The entrepreneurs of the Virginia Company experimented with a number of means of making the colony profitable. The orders sent with the first colonists instructed that they search for precious metals (specifically gold). While no gold was found, various products were sent back, including pitch and clapboard. In 1608, early attempts were made at breaking the Continental hold on glassmaking through the creation of a glassworks. In 1619, the colonist built the first ironworks in North America.

In 1612, settler John Rolfe planted tobacco obtained from Bermuda (during his stay there as part of the Third Supply). Within a few years, the crop proved extremely lucrative in the European market. As the English increasingly used tobacco products, the production of tobacco in the American Colonies became a significant economic driver, especially in the tidewater region surrounding the Chesapeake Bay.

Colonists developed plantations along the rivers of Virginia, and social/economic systems developed to grow and distribute this cash crop. Some elements of this system included the importation and use of enslaved Africans to cultivate and process crops, which included harvesting and drying periods. Planters would have their workers fill large hogsheads with tobacco and convey them to inspection warehouses. In 1730, the Virginia House of Burgesses standardized and improved the quality of tobacco exported by establishing the Tobacco Inspection Act of 1730, which required inspectors to grade tobacco at 40 specified locations.

Ethnic origins Edit

England supplied the great majority of colonists. In 1608, the first Poles and Slovaks arrived as part of a group of skilled craftsmen. [35] [36] [37] [38] In 1619, the first Africans arrived. Many more Africans were imported as slaves, such as Angela. [39] In the early 17th century, French Huguenots arrived in the colony as refugees from religious warfare. [40]

In the early 18th century, indentured German-speaking colonists from the iron-working region of Nassau-Siegen arrived to establish the Germanna settlement. [41] Scots-Irish settled on the Virginia frontier. [42] Some Welsh arrived, including some ancestors of Thomas Jefferson. [43]

Servitude and slavery Edit

With the boom in tobacco planting, there was a severe shortage of laborers to work the labor-intensive crop. One method to solve the shortage was through the usage of indentured servants.

By the 1640s, legal documents started to define the changing nature of indentured servants and their status as servants. In 1640, John Punch was sentenced to lifetime servitude as punishment for trying to escape from his master Hugh Gwyn. This is the earliest legal sanctioning of slavery in Virginia. [44] After this trial, the relationship between indentured servants and their masters changed, as planters saw permanent servitude a more appealing and profitable prospect than seven-year indentures.

As many indentured workers were illiterate, especially Africans, there were opportunities for abuse by planters and other indenture holders. Some ignored the expiration of servants' indentured contracts and tried to keep them as lifelong workers. One example is with Anthony Johnson, who argued with Robert Parker, another planter, over the status of John Casor, formerly an indentured servant of his. Johnson argued that his indenture was for life and Parker had interfered with his rights. The court ruled in favor of Johnson and ordered that Casor be returned to him, where he served the rest of his life as a slave. [45] Such documented cases marked the transformation of Negroes from indentured servants into slaves.

In the late 17th century, the Royal African Company, which was established by the King of England to supply the great demand for labor to the colonies, had a monopoly on the provision of African slaves to the colony. [46] As plantation agriculture was established earlier in Barbados, in the early years, slaves were shipped from Barbados (where they were seasoned) to the colonies of Virginia and Carolina.

Religion Edit

In 1619, the Anglican Church was formally established as the official religion in the colony, and would remain so until shortly after the American Revolution. Establishment meant that local tax funds paid the parish costs, and that the parish had local civic functions such as poor relief. The upper class planters controlled the vestry, which ran the parish and chose the minister. The church in Virginia was controlled by the Bishop of London, who sent priests and missionaries, but there were never enough, and they reported very low standards of personal morality. [47] By the 1760s, dissenting Protestants, especially Baptists and Methodists, were growing rapidly and started challenging the Anglicans for moral leadership. [48] [49] [50]

Education and literacy Edit

The first printing press used in Virginia began operation in Jamestown on June 8, 1680, though within a few years it was shut down by the Governor and Crown of England for want of a license. [51] It was not until 1736 that the first newspaper, the Virginia Gazette, began circulation under printer William Parks of Williamsburg. [51]

The Syms-Eaton Academy, started in 1634, became the first free public school in America. Private tutors were often favored among those families who could afford them. [52]

For most of the 17th century, a university education for settlers of Virginia required a journey to England or Scotland. [52] Such journeys were undertaken by wealthy young men. In the early years, many settlers received their education prior to immigrating to the colony. [52]

In 1693, the College of William and Mary was founded at Middle Plantation (soon renamed Williamsburg). The college included a common school for Virginia Indians, supplemented by local pupils, which lasted until a 1779 overhaul of the institution's curriculum. [52] The college, located in the capital and heart of the Tidewater region, dominated the colony's intellectual climate until after independence. [52] [53]

After 1747, some Virginians began to attend institutions at Princeton and Philadelphia. Generations began to move west into the Piedmont and Blue Ridge areas. [52] It is in this region of Virginia that two future Presbyterian colleges trace their origins to lower-level institutions founded in this time period. First, what would become Hampden–Sydney College was founded in 1775, immediately prior to the American Revolution. Likewise, Augusta Academy was a classical school that would evolve into Washington and Lee University (though would not grant its first bachelor's degree until 1785).

Amid the current wave of anti-immigrant sentiment, numerous US cities and states are reexamining their own histories. While traditional migrant destinations such as Miami, Los Angeles, or New York loom large in demography and popular consciousness, many locales have significant and diverse foreign-born populations. “The Land We Live in, the Land We Left: Virginia’s People,” an exhibition at the Library of Virginia in downtown Richmond, curated by Lisa Goff and coordinated by Barbara Batson, draws upon a material culture legacy ranging from Captain John Smith’s travels from England to Jamestown to the most recent influx of Mixtec migrants of southern Mexico to address a complicated and conflicted past.

Although simple in its presentation, using mostly large poster board and glass cases with a variety of historical artifacts, the purposes and stories presented in the exhibit defy their austere arrangement. When you enter the Library’s atrium, there are ten individual profiles in the lobby niches. As Goff explains, “We chose people with diversity in mind—geographic (both in terms of country of origin and where they settled in the state), class, race, and gender. We chose people who had lived the "American dream" of achieving financial success, but also people who had struggled financially their whole lives. In other words, the gamut of immigrant experience.”

Photographer unknown, Two Italian-Americans, Elannore T. Carrieri and Anna Guarina, at unveiling of Columbus Statue, Richmond, Virginia, 1925. Courtesy of the Library of Virginia.

“The Land We Live In” begins with Virginian icons John Smith and Pocahontas, creating a presence for Native Americans whose movements into and out of Virginia pre-dated and paralleled the early colonists'. Pocohontas, for example, was preparing to return to Virginia when she died in England. Had she lived longer, her pattern of return migration would have paralleled many travelers' comings and goings between continents. John Smith’s story questions the dichotomy between "immigrant" and "colonist," or "settler.”

Among the other eight profiles are biographies that also challenge the conventional trajectories of the “migrant.” In “Greece to Norfolk,” the exhibition tells of Demetrios Karkambasis (renamed James Campas) who comes to the United States in 1912, marries another Greek immigrant, has a family, and and by the 1920s owns a business. Members of the Karkambasis (James) family come and go, live and die, between Greece and Virginia, blurring the categories of “return,” “home,” and “country." Even if they did not make return trips, migrants’ ties to their home countries frequently remained strong and have always featured in the migrant experience. Other profiles of transnational migrants include those of people who are currently living: Pearl Fu from Roanoke, an ethnic minority from China who in the 1950s came to go to college. “You acclimate to this country,” says Fu, “contribute to it, but also you keep your heritage alive.”

Homes Broadside, 1873. Courtesy of the Library of Virginia.

The exhibit reveals migrant heartbreaks as in the story of an enslaved woman named Nancy who in 1815 was freed by her master only to learn that under a 1806 law she had to either leave the state within a year or remain enslaved to be with her three children. Nancy’s story finds parallels in today’s Latin American migrants, who leave families behind never to see them again, or lack legal documents so that parents are separated from their American-born children. "I looked all around, and I saw I was alone," writes an unknown immigrant in the Shenandoah Valley in 1847.

Drawing upon a deep trove of artifacts from the Virginia Board of Immigration (founded after the Civil War and run by Polish immigrant and former Confederate officer Gaspar Tochman), the main gallery of “The Land We Live in, the Land We Left” includes many objects of daily life from across time periods: red velvet wedding jackets, banjos, hand-carved walking canes, soccer jerseys, foreign-language newspapers, real estate brochures entreating “Come to Virginia!” The exhibit emphasizes the multiplicity of reasons immigrants came to Virginia and includes items belonging to African American slaves and Native Americans, people involuntarily brought to Virginia and those who were decimated and pushed out. “No native Indian in Virginia is unmixed with Negro blood,” reads an excerpt from a letter by the head of the Bureau of Statistics explaining that under Virginia’s 1924 Racial Integrity Law, Indians would be relabeled “negro.” This official action during the Jim Crow era resulted in the flight of many of the state’s Native Americans.

Debra H. Rodman, Exhibition guest book, Library of Virginia, Richmond, Virginia, 2010.

In the exhibition’s main hall, a large map of the world is colored in bright post-it notes mostly by children who have written their places of origin. A guest book contains testimonies of the latest Virginians: “My family is from the southernmost island of the Caribbean, Trinidad and Tobago,” “My family came from the Mayflower from England,” “My dad is from Prague and my mom from Puerto Rico,” “I am from Jutiapa, El Progresso, Guatemala!” The lists of names and places turn into longer narratives of immigration. “I myself am from Texas,” writes a child, “though my mother was from Mexico, and my grandmother from the Yucatán, I am proud to be third generation to travel great distances in search of new hopes, ideas, and personal freedom.”

“The Land We Live in, the Land We Left” also engages the current immigration debate through a series of panel discussions. As an anthropologist who studies Central American migration, I sat with other academics and Latin American migrants to explore “Nuestra Tierra, Nuestro Hogar: Latinos in Virginia,” and “Becoming a Virginian: Contemporary Immigrants Speak.” The parallels between the challenges facing today’s migrants and those of earlier generations are clear: tension and ambiguity, sacrifice and loss, hope, and the possibilities of personal freedom.

About the Author

Debra H. Rodman is a cultural anthropologist who has lived and worked among Guatemalan migrants and in their home communities since 1999. Her research explores the impact of transnational migration on gender and ethnic relations among Maya and Ladino people in Eastern Guatemala. She currently resides in Richmond, Virginia and is an assistant professor at Randolph-Macon College.

Virginia II - History

Field & Specialties

20th Century International
War and Society
Cold War
America and the World
Europe and the World



William I. Hitchcock is the William W. Corcoran Professor of History at the University of Virginia. His work and teaching focus on the global history of the 20th Century, in particular the era of the two world wars and the cold war.

He received his B.A. degree from Kenyon College in 1986 and his Ph.D. from Yale University in 1994, working under the supervision of Paul Kennedy. He taught at Yale for six years, and served as the Associate Director of International Security Studies there. He published France Restored: Cold War Diplomacy and the Quest for Leadership in Europe (UNC, 1998) and co-edited a volume with Paul Kennedy titled From War to Peace: Altered Strategic Landscapes in the 20th Century (Yale, 2000). He moved to Wellesley College in 1999, where he taught for five years, and then took a position as a dean and professor of history at Temple University in Philadelphia. After publishing The Struggle for Europe: The Turbulent History of a Divided Continent, 1945-present (Doubleday/Anchor, 2002), he went on to write about the experience of liberation at the close of World War II. His book, The Bitter Road to Freedom: A New History of the Liberation of Europe (Free Press, 2008) was a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize, a winner of the George Louis Beer Prize, and a Financial Times bestseller in the UK. In 2010, he moved to the University of Virginia. His most recent book is The Age of Eisenhower: America and the World in the 1950s (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2018), which was a New York Times bestseller. For more information, click here. He is now writing "FDR and the Dictators: Fascism, Democracy and the Awakening of America," which explores reactions in the United States to the rise of fascism in Europe from the 1920s to 1941.

He lives in Charlottesville, Virginia and is married to the Civil War historian Elizabeth R. Varon.

Ph.D. Advisees and Dissertation Topics

Mary Barton: The Early History of Counter-Terrorism, 1898-1937. (PhD 2016 Dept of Defense)

Kathleen Berggren: “Forging a Soldier-State Social Contract: Veterans in American Politics, 1919-1980.” (PhD 2016)

Vivien Chang: "Creating the Third World: Anticolonial Diplomacy and the NIEO, 1960-75."

Michael De Groot: "Disruption: The Global Economy of the 1970s." (PhD 2017 Asst Prof, Univ Indiana)

Alexandra Evans: "Reagan's Middle East" (PhD 2018)

Matt Frakes: Counterterrorism in the Reagan Years

Stephanie Freeman: Nuclear Abolitionism and the End of the Cold War, 1979-1991. (Ph.D. 2017 Asst Prof., Mississippi State Univ.)

Mina Lee: Korea, Asia, and Nuclear Proliferation in the 1970s

Timothy Sayle (Temple University): An International History of NATO, 1956-1968. (PhD 2013 Asst Prof., Univ of Toronto.)

Felix Zuber: Transatlantic Peace Movements in the 1980s


The Age of Eisenhower: America and the World in the 1950s. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2018. New York Times bestseller.

The Human Rights Revolution: An International History, co-edited with Akira Iriye and Petra Goedde. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.

The Bitter Road to Freedom: A New History of the Liberation of Europe. (New York: The Free Press/Simon and Schuster, 2008). Published simultaneously in Britain by Faber and Co., London.

  • Winner, 2009 George Louis Beer Prize, American Historical Association.
  • Finalist for the 2009 Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction.
  • Finalist for the 2009 Mark Lynton History Prize.
  • Named to “Ten Best Books” List for 2008, Independent (UK)
  • Bestseller List, Financial Times (UK).
  • Translation: Dutch, Swedish, Italian, Polish.

The Struggle for Europe: The Turbulent History of a Divided Continent, 1945-present (New York: Doubleday, 2003 London, Profile Books, 2003 Anchor Books paperback, 2004).

  • Hebrew translation: ha-Maavak `al Eropah : ha-historyah ha-so`eret shel yabeshet mehuleket, 1945 `ad yamenu (Tel Aviv: Am Oved, 2006).
  • Italian translation: Il continente diviso: Storia dell’Europa dal 1945 a oggi. (Rome: Carocci, 2005).

From War to Peace: Altered Strategic Landscapes in the Twentieth Century. Co-edited with Paul Kennedy (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000).

France Restored: Cold War Diplomacy and the Quest for Stability in Europe, 1945-1954 (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1998).


Thirty-four Virginia National Guard soldiers from the town of Bedford were part of D-Day. Nineteen of them were killed during the first day of the invasion, and four more died during the rest of the Normandy campaign. The town and the "Bedford Boys" had proportionately suffered the greatest losses of any American town during the campaign, thus inspiring the United States Congress to establish the D-Day memorial in Bedford. [3] [4]

The Bedford Boys included three sets of brothers: twins Roy and Ray Stevens, with Ray killed during the landing while Roy survived, Clyde and Jack Powers, with Jack killed and Clyde wounded but surviving, and Bedford and Raymond Hoback, both killed. [5] The losses by the soldiers from Bedford were chronicled in the best-selling book The Bedford Boys by Alex Kershaw, and helped inspire the movie Saving Private Ryan. [6] The movie's director, Steven Spielberg, helped fund the memorial, including funding for the creation of the Arnold M. Spielberg Theater, in honor of his father, a World War II veteran. [7]

The National D-Day Memorial Foundation is a non-profit 501(c)(3)organization that had its beginnings as a small committee in 1988 with the prospect of building a memorial to dedicate the sacrifices made by the Allied Forces on D-Day. The idea had been looked at, but support for its completion did not exist prior to the fiftieth anniversary of the invasion in 1994. [8]

Presently, the foundation is headquartered in Bedford. After 8 months of 2 co-presidents, In May 2013, April Cheek-Messier was named the president of The National D-Day Memorial Foundation. It charges itself with expanding the memorial, such as when it listed on plaques the name of every one of the 4,413 Allied soldiers who died in the invasion, the most complete list of its kind anywhere in the world. The memorial is currently trying to one better itself with its attempt to compile a list of every service member that participated in Operations Overlord and Neptune (Overlord was the code name of actual invasion whereas Neptune was code for getting the troops across the English Channel for the invasion). [9] The organization also involves itself in assisting veterans and their families such as undertaking the search for family members of soldiers whose personal belongings have been found after years of being lost. [10]

Fundraising and building the memorial took approximately seven years of planning and approximately $25 million to complete. In 1994, the town of Bedford donated 11 acres (45,000 m 2 ) of land to the memorial. The foundation purchased additional acreage, bringing the total size of the memorial to 50+ acres. In 1997, the foundation received a one million dollar donation from Charles Schulz, who, with his wife, volunteered to head a fundraising campaign for the memorial. [11]

According to the National D-Day Memorial Foundation, the memorial is a continuum of three distinct plazas which follow on a time line. The first plaza, Reynolds Garden, symbolizes the planning and preparation activities for the invasion through the execution of the order for the invasion. It is in the shape of the Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force combat patch. The second level, Gray Plaza, reflects the landing and fighting stages of the invasion. It includes what is called the invasion pool with beach obstacles in the water, sculptures of soldiers struggling ashore, and a representation of the Higgins craft used for the invasion. This section includes intermittent jets of water spurting from the pool replicating the sights and sounds of sporadic gunfire. The names of the United States' losses appear on the west necrology wall of the central plaza, the rest of the Allies' losses on the east necrology wall. In the spirit of Dwight D. Eisenhower's one-team command philosophy for the AEF, no other distinctions are made. [1] The last and uppermost plaza, Estes Plaza, celebrates victory and includes the Overlord Arch and the twelve flags of those Allied nations that served in the Allied Expeditionary Force. The Overlord Arch represents the victory of Operation Overlord and bears the invasion date of June 6, 1944 in its height at 44 feet (13 m) and 6 inches (150 mm) tall. [1]

The memorial is open Sunday through Saturday 10:00 AM to 5:00 PM. During the months of January and February and part of March, the invasion pool is drained for maintenance. In addition to the memorial's static displays, on several weekends throughout the year, the memorial hosts events relating to remembering World War II. Examples of such events have included a weekend long encampment of World War II re-enactors and a World War II-style religious mass in addition to Memorial Day, Veterans Day, and D-Day activities that occur annually. [1]

    - London, England - Arlington County, Virginia - German-built V-2 launch site in Pas-de-Calais, France - Beijing, China - Kiev, Ukraine - Natick, Massachusetts (Closed in September 2019) - Poklonnaya Gora, Moscow, Russia - Gdańsk, Poland - in home of Fleet Admiral Chester Nimitz in Fredericksburg, Texas - Kansas City, Missouri - National Mall, Washington, DC - National Mall, Washington, DC - Stow, Massachusetts - New Orleans, Louisiana
  1. ^ abcdThe National D-Day Memorial Foundation
  2. ^ Alex Kershaw. The Bedford Boys. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Da Capo Press, 2003, p. 234
  3. ^"Why Bedford?". National D-Day Memorial Foundation. Archived from the original on 27 September 2015 . Retrieved 22 April 2016 .
  4. ^
  5. Seale, Shelley (5 June 2015). "A Virginia town remembers the Bedford Boys, who gave their lives on D-day". Los Angeles Times . Retrieved 22 April 2016 .
  6. ^
  7. "Bedford Boys' D-Day loss still casts shadow in Virginia town". CBS News. 6 June 2014 . Retrieved 22 April 2016 .
  8. ^
  9. Hale, Julie (November 2004). "The Bedford Boys". BookPage . Retrieved 22 April 2016 .
  10. ^
  11. "Memorial Day evokes D-Day memories". The Washington Times. 29 May 2000 . Retrieved 22 April 2016 .
  12. ^ Kershaw. Bedford Boys. p. 233
  13. ^ "Education." National D-Day Memorial.
  14. ^ Searching for Family of D-Day Soldier to return Items. WSLS 10 On Your Side, reported by Angela Hatcher (February 18, 2010 Roanoke, VA NBC affiliate, WSLS)
  15. ^ Kershaw. Bedford Boys. p. 233-35

Byron Dickson, Architect. The National D-Day Memorial: Evolution of an Idea. 104 pp. ( 978-0-615-44142-9)

Continuing Intelligence Career

After completing her work with the SOE, Hall’s spy career wasn’t over. She joined the equivalent American organization, the Office of Strategic Services, Special Operations Branch, and requested a chance to return to France, still under Nazi occupation. Granting her request, the OSS sent her to Brittany, France, with a false identity and a code name.

Over the course of the next year, Hall mapped out safe zones for supply drops and safe houses, worked with the major Operation Jedburgh, personally helped train Resistance fighters in guerilla warfare, and sent a constant stream of reporting back to Allied intelligence. Her work continued up until the very end of the war Hall only ceased reporting once Allied forces caught up to her and her team in September 1945.

Upon returning to the United State, Hall married Paul Goillot, a former OSS operative himself. The pair both transitioned into work at the Central Intelligence Agency, where Hall became an intelligence analyst, specializing in French parliamentary affairs. Both Hall and Goillot were assigned to the Special Activities Divison: the CIA division focused on covert operations.


Cuccinelli was born in Edison, New Jersey, the son of Maribeth (née Reilly) and Kenneth Thomas Cuccinelli. [13] His father is of Italian descent and his mother is of Irish ancestry. [14] He graduated from Gonzaga College High School in 1986, [15] and received his Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Virginia, a Juris Doctor degree from George Mason University School of Law, and an M.A. in International Commerce and Policy from George Mason University. [16]

He co-founded a general practice law firm in Fairfax City, Virginia. [17]

Cuccinelli ran for the state Senate in the 37th District in an August 2002 special election. He defeated Democrat Catherine Belter 55%–45%. [18] [19] In 2003, he was re-elected to his first full term, defeating Democrat Jim E. Mitchell III 53% to 47%. [20] In 2007, he barely won re-election to his second full term, narrowly defeating Democrat Janet Oleszek by a 0.3-point margin, a difference of just 92 votes out of about 37,000 votes cast. [21] [22]

Committee assignments

  • Courts of Justice
  • Local Government
  • Rehabilitation and Social Services
  • Transportation [23]

In 2009, Cuccinelli was selected as the Republican nominee for attorney general, [24] going on to win 58% of the vote (1,123,816 votes). Republican Bob McDonnell became governor, [25] and Bill Bolling was re-elected as lieutenant governor. Cuccinelli was inaugurated on January 16, 2010. [26]

In 2010, Cuccinelli was the first attorney general to file a federal lawsuit (Virginia v. Sebelius) challenging the constitutionality of the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare). [27] [28] During his 2013 run for governor, Cuccinelli opposed the ACA's Medicaid expansion. [28]

In July 2010, Cuccinelli joined eight other states in filing an amicus brief opposing the federal government's lawsuit challenging an Arizona immigration enforcement statute. [29] In August 2010, Cuccinelli authorized law enforcement officials to investigate the immigration status of anyone that they have stopped. [30]

Cuccinelli rejects the scientific consensus on climate change. [31] In 2010, Cuccinelli sought judicial review of the Environmental Protection Agency's finding that greenhouse gasses endanger public health. [32] In 2012, a three-judge panel of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit rejected Cuccinelli's arguments. [33] In 2010, Cuccinelli announced he would challenge the March 2010 standards for motor vehicle fuel efficiency specified in the Clean Air Act. [34] [35] [36] In April 2010, as part of the Attorney General of Virginia's climate science investigation, Cuccinelli served a civil investigative demand on the University of Virginia seeking a broad range of documents related to climate researcher Michael E. Mann. [37] [38] On August 30, 2010, Judge Paul M. Peatross Jr. ruled that "the nature of the conduct is not stated so that any reasonable person could glean what Dr. Mann did to violate the statute." [39] [40] [41] Cuccinelli appealed the case to the Virginia Supreme Court, which ruled that Cuccinelli did not have the authority to make these demands. The outcome was hailed as a victory for academic freedom. [42] [43]

Cuccinelli opposes homosexuality, describing homosexual acts as "against nature" and "harmful to society." [44] [45] [46] Cuccinelli opposes same-sex marriage. [47] He has argued against the constitutionality of same-sex marriages. [47] In 2010, Cuccinelli called on Virginia universities to remove "'sexual orientation,' 'gender identity,' 'gender expression,' or like classification, as a protected class within its nondiscrimination policy, absent specific authorization from the General Assembly." [48] [44]

Cuccinelli led several efforts combating usury, human trafficking, sodomy, and cyberbullying, although these efforts have not always been found legal. Since 2007, his office negotiated settlements of almost $8 million representing refunds from eight auto-title lenders, [49] [50] filed a lawsuit against CNC Financial Services, Inc. for charging interest rates of 300 percent or more, [49] [50] [51] and filed two separate against two Virginia Beach-based mortgage modification companies for charging customers up to $1,200 in illegal advance fees. [52] Cuccinelli has been a staunch advocate against human trafficking during his time in office, [53] and the advocacy group Polaris Project named Virginia one of the most improved states in cracking down on human trafficking in 2010 under Cuccinelli's leadership. [54] He made human trafficking legislation his priority in his efforts during the 2013 General Assembly session, teaming up with Democratic and Republican lawmakers in support of three anti-human trafficking bills, [55] all of which were passed and signed into law. [56] [57] [58] [59] He defended the constitutionality of Virginia laws prohibiting sodomy. [60] In March 2013, a panel of the U.S. Court of Appeals struck down Virginia's anti-sodomy law, finding it unconstitutional based on the Supreme Court's 2003 ruling in Lawrence v. Texas". [61] On June 25, 2013, Cuccinelli filed an appeal with the U.S. Supreme Court, [62] [63] but in October 2013 the Supreme Court denied Cuccinelli's appeal. [64] On November 24, 2010, Cuccinelli issued a legal opinion that police, school administrators, and teachers could search students' cell phones on the basis of reasonable suspicions in order to deter cyberbullying and "sexting". The ACLU and the Rutherford Institute said that Cuccinelli's opinion was in error, lacking a legal foundation. [65] [66]

After his election as attorney general, it was speculated that Cuccinelli was a potential candidate for governor in the 2013 election [67] or for the United States Senate in 2014. Cuccinelli himself stated that he was considering running for the Senate. [68] Two days later, one of his aides said, "We haven't ruled out anything. He's not actively considering a run for any particular office at the moment. Ken is operating under the assumption that he will run for reelection [in 2013]. He hasn't ruled out any option besides running for president, which he has no desire to do." [69]

On November 30, 2011, The Washington Post reported that Cuccinelli would announce within days that he was running for governor in 2013 the next day, Cuccinelli confirmed that he would run. [70] Cuccinelli said he would continue serving as Attorney General during his run. He is the first Attorney General since 1985 to remain in office while seeking the Governorship rather than resign the position while seeking the office, a precedent that the last six Attorneys General to run for Governor have adhered to. [71]

Cuccinelli lost to Terry McAuliffe on November 5, 2013, by 56,435 votes, or 2.5% of total ballots cast. [9] The Libertarian Party candidate, Robert Sarvis, received 146,084 votes, or 6.5% of the vote total. [9]

In the 2016 presidential election, Cuccinelli served as an advisor to Ted Cruz's campaign, leading the campaign's effort to win delegates for Cruz at the 2016 Republican National Convention. [72]

In early polls on the 2017 gubernatorial race, Cuccinelli was a frontrunner for the Republican nomination. [73] However, in April 2016, Cuccinelli announced that he would not run for governor in 2017. [74]

In May 2016, Cuccinelli was named general counsel of the FreedomWorks Foundation, where he helps state attorneys general who want to oppose a federal regulation. [75]

In January 2017, Cuccinelli filed a legal brief on behalf of the Virginia Poverty Law Center, challenging a 2015 law which freezes base electricity rates charged by Dominion Power, one of the state's most powerful corporations, and Appalachian Power Company. The basis of the brief is that the law allows these semi-public electric utility companies to charge excess rates. Cuccinelli said "This is a legalized transfer [of money] from poorer Virginians to two utility companies. It is unfair and unjust and unconstitutional, and it's bad policy." [76]

Cuccinelli was appointed to serve as the Principal Deputy Director of the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) in June 2019, allowing him to become the Acting Director. [77]

As the administrator of USCIS, Cuccinelli is in charge of the systems for legal immigration and naturalization. He has said that he regards access to immigration as a privilege, not a right, and that "We are not a benefit agency, we are a vetting agency." [78]

Appointment controversy Edit

Cuccinelli was appointed Acting Director when leading Senators indicated he had little chance of Senate confirmation as permanent director. [79] [80] He was first appointed to a newly created position of "Principal Deputy Director," which according to Department of Homeland Security officials allowed him to then be appointed as Acting Director under the Federal Vacancies Reform Act (FVRA). [81]

The appointment as Acting Director of USCIS may have circumvented the Federal Vacancies Reform Act, according to the Chairs of the House committees on Judiciary, Homeland Security, and Government Oversight. [82] FVRA stipulates eligibility criteria for temporarily filling positions that require Senate confirmation. Before being considered for the position, Cuccinelli had met none of the eligibility criteria. In a letter to the Acting Secretary of Homeland Security, the House committee chairs allege that the brief appointment to "Principal Deputy Director" had been retroactively applied, possibly in violation of the law. [82] The USCIS employees union also challenged the legality of Cuccinelli's appointment. [80]

In September 2019, a lawsuit was filed challenging his asylum directives, partially on the basis that his appointment was invalid. [83] On March 1, 2020 US District Court Judge Randolph D. Moss ruled that Cuccinelli was not lawfully appointed to serve as acting director and therefore lacked authority to issue two of the directives challenged in the lawsuit. Because the case was not filed as a class action, Moss was "unconvinced" that his relief should be extended to other asylum seekers not part of the original suit. [84] [85] On August 12, 2020, the government dropped its appeal in the case. [86]

Tenure in office Edit

In July 2019, Cuccinelli blamed an asylum seeker for the asylum seeker's own death and that of his daughter who were found dead on the banks of the Rio Grande River. [87] He said, "The reason we have tragedies like that on the border is because those folks, that father didn't want to wait to go through the asylum process in the legal fashion, so decided to cross the river". [87] He said in an interview that the administration is prepared to deport approximately 1 million undocumented immigrants who have final removal orders already in place. [88]

On August 12, 2019, Cuccinelli announced a revised regulation, to go into effect October 15, 2019, expanding the public charge requirements for legal immigration. Green cards and visas can be denied if people are likely to need federal, state and local government benefits including food stamps, housing vouchers and Medicaid. When asked whether this change contradicted the poem welcoming the impoverished and persecuted engraved at the base of the Statue of Liberty, Cuccinelli offered a revision, "Give me your tired and your poor who can stand on their own two feet and who will not become a public charge." The original poem, Emma Lazarus's "The New Colossus", states "Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore." Cuccinelli asserted the new requirements were consistent with the public charge laws, which first passed in 1882: the same era as the poem. He further asserted that the poem referred to European immigrants, though these assertions were disputed by Lazarus's biographer. [89] [90] [91] [92]

In October 2019, Ken Cuccinelli testified to a Congressional investigation that he alone had made the decision to end the medical deferred action program, a decision which he reversed after public outcry, and complaints from some patients in the U.S. for medical care that they would die if deported to their home countries. [93]

On March 1, 2020, the United States District Court for the District of Columbia ruled that Cuccinelli's appointment as USCIS director was illegal because the newly created principal deputy director role did not count as a "first assistant" under the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998 because he had never served in a subordinate role to any other USCIS official. This decision caused the suspension of all directives issued by him. [94]

Appointment controversy Edit

On November 13, 2019, newly sworn-in Acting Secretary of Homeland Security Chad Wolf named Cuccinelli to be the Senior Official Performing the Duties of the Deputy Secretary of Homeland Security. [3] [4] [5] Cuccinelli continued to serve concurrently in the acting USCIS director role. [94]

The legality of this appointment was unclear House Committee on Homeland Security Chair Bennie Thompson called the appointment "legally questionable," while University of Texas School of Law Professor Stephen Vladeck said that "because Congress has not, by law, specified which position is 'first assistant' to the Deputy Secretary, this move is technically legal," despite "messing up the entire DHS line of succession in order to pull this off." [95]

On November 15, House Democrats requested that the Comptroller General of the United States review the legality of this appointment and Chad Wolf's as Acting Secretary on the basis that former Acting Secretary Kevin McAleenan did not have authority to change the department's line of succession. [96] On August 14, 2020, the Government Accountability Office issued a decision confirming that his appointment as Acting Deputy Secretary illegal on this basis. [11] [12]

Tenure Edit

Cuccinelli was appointed as a member of the White House Coronavirus Task Force on January 29, 2020.

In July 2020, amid the coronavirus pandemic, the Department of Homeland Security announced that international students in the United States would be deported unless they took in-person classes at universities in the United States. At the time, many universities were considering online-only models or hybrid in-person/online classes in order to safeguard the health of students and staff, as well as to halt the spread of the coronavirus. Cuccinelli defended the policy, saying "there isn't a reason" for international students to remain in the United States unless classes are in-person. He also said that the intent behind the announcement was to encourage universities to have in-person classes during the pandemic. [97] The United States issued nearly 400,000 F1- and M-visas (student visas) in 2019. [98] On July 8, 2020, Harvard filed pleadings together with MIT in the US District Court in Boston seeking a temporary restraining order prohibiting enforcement of the order. [99]

That same month, Cuccinelli defended the deployment of federal agents dressed in camouflage and tactical gear to Portland, Oregon where they picked up protestors and took them into unmarked vehicles. [100] [101]

Under his tenure, Cuccinelli reduced oversight of the DHS's intelligence arm, making it unnecessary for it to get approval from the DHS's civil liberties office in producing intelligence products. Since the change, the DHS's intelligence arm began compiling intelligence reports on journalists who covered the deployment of DHS agents to Portland, Oregon. [102] The intelligence arm also documented communications between protestors on the app Telegram. [102]

According to a whistleblower complaint released in September 2020, Cuccinelli ordered the intelligence branch at DHS to modify its intelligence assessments to downplay the threat posed by white supremacy groups and to instead focus on "left-wing" groups such as the antifa movement. [103]

Another whistleblower complaint, filed February 1, 2021, asserted that on January 19, 2021, the day before Biden's inauguration, Cuccinelli signed an agreement with the union representing ICE agents which essentially gives the agents the power to determine policy, by requiring prior written consent from the union before any change to policies and functions that affect them can take effect. The complaint said that Cuccinelli's action was an abuse of power intended to "tie Biden's hands" with regard to immigration policy. [104]

Abortion Edit

Cuccinelli opposes a right to terminate a pregnancy. [105] [106] In November 2008 he was named the Family Foundation of Virginia "Legislator of the Year." [107] Cuccinelli sponsored a number of bills to discourage abortions, including requiring doctors to anesthetize fetuses undergoing late term abortions, [108] altering the licensing and regulation of abortion clinics, [109] and requiring that a doctor save the fetal tissue when performing an abortion on a woman under age 15, for forensic use. [110] As a state senator, he advanced legislation to make abortion clinics subject to the same health and safety standards as outpatient surgical hospitals. [105] He supported two "personhood" bills that sought to provide human embryos with legal rights. [106]

Birtherism Edit

In 2010, Cuccinelli made statements that appeared to question whether President Barack Obama was born in the United States. He later backed away from the statements. [111] [112]

Guns Edit

Cuccinelli is a longtime advocate for gun rights. [113] sponsored legislation to repeal the prohibition on carrying a concealed handgun in a restaurant or club, [114] for Virginia to recognize concealed handgun permits from other states, [115] and to shield concealed handgun permit application data from Freedom of Information Act requests. [116] Under Cuccinelli's proposal a person could only be disqualified for such a permit by a court ruling based on the applicant's past actions. [117] In the 2009 legislative session, a bill Cuccinelli introduced was passed that, for the purposes of granting a Virginia concealed handgun permit, required the state to accept as proof of "handgun competence" any certificate from an online handgun safety course featuring an NRA Certified instructor. [118]

Cuccinelli believes that mental illness is the root cause of mass shootings, and that they can be better prevented with more access to mental health care. [113] He has pushed for restricting mentally ill persons from obtaining guns. [119]

Immigration Edit

Cuccinelli has been described as an immigration hard-liner. [111] He has supported President Trump's anti-immigration policies. [120] [111] While in Virginia politics, Cuccinelli pushed legislation to force employees to speak English in the workplace. [111] He has sought to repeal birthright citizenship. [111] He sought to ban undocumented immigrants from attending Virginia colleges. [121]

Donald Trump Edit

During the 2016 Republican National Convention, Cuccinelli led an effort to prevent Donald Trump from receiving the Republican presidential nomination. [111] He was a staunch Ted Cruz supporter during the 2016 Republican primaries. [121]

Taxes Edit

In 2006, Cuccinelli sent out a fundraising letter that criticized the Virginia Senate's Republican majority for passing a gasoline tax increase. The letter elicited rebuke from fellow Republican Tommy Norment. [122] In his 2013 campaign, Cuccinelli proposed cutting the top individual income rate from 5.75 percent to 5 percent and the corporate income tax rate from 6 percent to 4 percent for a total reduction in tax revenue of about $1.4 billion a year. He has stated that he would offset that lost revenue by slowing the growth of the state's general fund spending and by eliminating unspecified tax exemptions and loopholes. [123] [124]

Eminent domain Edit

In the 2005, 2006 and 2007 legislative sessions, Cuccinelli worked to pass eminent domain (compulsory purchase) laws that prevented local and state governments from taking private homes and businesses for developers' projects. [125] In April 2010, Cuccinelli told the Roanoke Chamber of Commerce that he wanted to improve the protection of property rights in Virginia's Constitution. "There is no consistency on the application of eminent domain throughout Virginia," he said. [126] In 2012, Cuccinelli championed a constitutional amendment to prohibit eminent domain from being used to take private land for private gain, thus restricting it to being used only for public gain. The amendment was placed on the ballot for a voter referendum in the 2012 general election, and was passed 74%–26%. [127]

Law enforcement Edit

In 2005, Cuccinelli was the chief patron of SB873, [128] legislation that entitled law enforcement officers to overtime pay from local governments for hours worked while on vacation or other leave. [129]

Abstinence-only sex education Edit

Cuccinelli has been a strong advocate of the abstinence-only sex education programs with state funding. He stated "The longer you delay the commencement of sexual activity, you have healthier and happier kids and more successful kids." [130]

§ 18.2-308.2:2. (Effective July 1, 2021) Criminal history record information check required for the transfer of certain firearms.

A. Any person purchasing from a dealer a firearm as herein defined shall consent in writing, on a form to be provided by the Department of State Police, to have the dealer obtain criminal history record information. Such form shall include only the written consent the name, birth date, gender, race, citizenship, and social security number and/or any other identification number the number of firearms by category intended to be sold, rented, traded, or transferred and answers by the applicant to the following questions: (i) has the applicant been convicted of a felony offense or found guilty or adjudicated delinquent as a juvenile 14 years of age or older at the time of the offense of a delinquent act that would be a felony if committed by an adult (ii) is the applicant subject to a court order restraining the applicant from harassing, stalking, or threatening the applicant's child or intimate partner, or a child of such partner, or is the applicant subject to a protective order (iii) has the applicant ever been acquitted by reason of insanity and prohibited from purchasing, possessing, or transporting a firearm pursuant to § 18.2-308.1:1 or any substantially similar law of any other jurisdiction, been adjudicated legally incompetent, mentally incapacitated, or adjudicated an incapacitated person and prohibited from purchasing a firearm pursuant to § 18.2-308.1:2 or any substantially similar law of any other jurisdiction, been involuntarily admitted to an inpatient facility or involuntarily ordered to outpatient mental health treatment and prohibited from purchasing a firearm pursuant to § 18.2-308.1:3 or any substantially similar law of any other jurisdiction, or been the subject of a temporary detention order pursuant to § 37.2-809 and subsequently agreed to a voluntary admission pursuant to § 37.2-805 and (iv) is the applicant subject to an emergency substantial risk order or a substantial risk order entered pursuant to § 19.2-152.13 or 19.2-152.14 and prohibited from purchasing, possessing, or transporting a firearm pursuant to § 18.2-308.1:6 or any substantially similar law of any other jurisdiction.

B. 1. No dealer shall sell, rent, trade, or transfer from his inventory any such firearm to any other person who is a resident of Virginia until he has (i) obtained written consent and the other information on the consent form specified in subsection A, and provided the Department of State Police with the name, birth date, gender, race, citizenship, and social security and/or any other identification number and the number of firearms by category intended to be sold, rented, traded, or transferred and (ii) requested criminal history record information by a telephone call to or other communication authorized by the State Police and is authorized by subdivision 2 to complete the sale or other such transfer. To establish personal identification and residence in Virginia for purposes of this section, a dealer must require any prospective purchaser to present one photo-identification form issued by a governmental agency of the Commonwealth or by the United States Department of Defense that demonstrates that the prospective purchaser resides in Virginia. For the purposes of this section and establishment of residency for firearm purchase, residency of a member of the armed forces shall include both the state in which the member's permanent duty post is located and any nearby state in which the member resides and from which he commutes to the permanent duty post. A member of the armed forces whose photo identification issued by the Department of Defense does not have a Virginia address may establish his Virginia residency with such photo identification and either permanent orders assigning the purchaser to a duty post, including the Pentagon, in Virginia or the purchaser's Leave and Earnings Statement. When the photo identification presented to a dealer by the prospective purchaser is a driver's license or other photo identification issued by the Department of Motor Vehicles, and such identification form contains a date of issue, the dealer shall not, except for a renewed driver's license or other photo identification issued by the Department of Motor Vehicles, sell or otherwise transfer a firearm to the prospective purchaser until 30 days after the date of issue of an original or duplicate driver's license unless the prospective purchaser also presents a copy of his Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles driver's record showing that the original date of issue of the driver's license was more than 30 days prior to the attempted purchase.

In addition, no dealer shall sell, rent, trade, or transfer from his inventory any assault firearm to any person who is not a citizen of the United States or who is not a person lawfully admitted for permanent residence.

Upon receipt of the request for a criminal history record information check, the State Police shall (a) review its criminal history record information to determine if the buyer or transferee is prohibited from possessing or transporting a firearm by state or federal law, (b) inform the dealer if its record indicates that the buyer or transferee is so prohibited, and (c) provide the dealer with a unique reference number for that inquiry.

2. The State Police shall provide its response to the requesting dealer during the dealer's request or by return call without delay. A dealer who fulfills the requirements of subdivision 1 and is told by the State Police that a response will not be available by the end of the dealer's third business day may immediately complete the sale or transfer and shall not be deemed in violation of this section with respect to such sale or transfer.

3. Except as required by subsection D of § 9.1-132, the State Police shall not maintain records longer than 30 days, except for multiple handgun transactions for which records shall be maintained for 12 months, from any dealer's request for a criminal history record information check pertaining to a buyer or transferee who is not found to be prohibited from possessing and transporting a firearm under state or federal law. However, the log on requests made may be maintained for a period of 12 months, and such log shall consist of the name of the purchaser, the dealer identification number, the unique approval number, and the transaction date.

4. On the last day of the week following the sale or transfer of any firearm, the dealer shall mail or deliver the written consent form required by subsection A to the Department of State Police. The State Police shall immediately initiate a search of all available criminal history record information to determine if the purchaser is prohibited from possessing or transporting a firearm under state or federal law. If the search discloses information indicating that the buyer or transferee is so prohibited from possessing or transporting a firearm, the State Police shall inform the chief law-enforcement officer in the jurisdiction where the sale or transfer occurred and the dealer without delay.

5. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this section, rifles and shotguns may be purchased by persons who are citizens of the United States or persons lawfully admitted for permanent residence but residents of other states under the terms of subsections A and B upon furnishing the dealer with one photo-identification form issued by a governmental agency of the person's state of residence and one other form of identification determined to be acceptable by the Department of Criminal Justice Services.

6. For the purposes of this subsection, the phrase "dealer's third business day" does not include December 25.

C. No dealer shall sell, rent, trade, or transfer from his inventory any firearm, except when the transaction involves a rifle or a shotgun and can be accomplished pursuant to the provisions of subdivision B 5, to any person who is a dual resident of Virginia and another state pursuant to applicable federal law unless he has first obtained from the Department of State Police a report indicating that a search of all available criminal history record information has not disclosed that the person is prohibited from possessing or transporting a firearm under state or federal law.

To establish personal identification and dual resident eligibility for purposes of this subsection, a dealer shall require any prospective purchaser to present one photo-identification form issued by a governmental agency of the prospective purchaser's state of legal residence and other documentation of dual residence within the Commonwealth. The other documentation of dual residence in the Commonwealth may include (i) evidence of currently paid personal property tax or real estate tax or a current (a) lease, (b) utility or telephone bill, (c) voter registration card, (d) bank check, (e) passport, (f) automobile registration, or (g) hunting or fishing license (ii) other current identification allowed as evidence of residency by 27 C.F.R. § 178.124 and ATF Ruling 2001-5 or (iii) other documentation of residence determined to be acceptable by the Department of Criminal Justice Services and that corroborates that the prospective purchaser currently resides in Virginia.

D. If any buyer or transferee is denied the right to purchase a firearm under this section, he may exercise his right of access to and review and correction of criminal history record information under § 9.1-132 or institute a civil action as provided in § 9.1-135, provided any such action is initiated within 30 days of such denial.

E. Any dealer who willfully and intentionally requests, obtains, or seeks to obtain criminal history record information under false pretenses, or who willfully and intentionally disseminates or seeks to disseminate criminal history record information except as authorized in this section, shall be guilty of a Class 2 misdemeanor.

F. For purposes of this section:

"Actual buyer" means a person who executes the consent form required in subsection B or C, or other such firearm transaction records as may be required by federal law.

1. Any firearm (including any firearm with a matchlock, flintlock, percussion cap, or similar type of ignition system) manufactured in or before 1898

2. Any replica of any firearm described in subdivision 1 of this definition if such replica (i) is not designed or redesigned for using rimfire or conventional centerfire fixed ammunition or (ii) uses rimfire or conventional centerfire fixed ammunition that is no longer manufactured in the United States and that is not readily available in the ordinary channels of commercial trade

3. Any muzzle-loading rifle, muzzle-loading shotgun, or muzzle-loading pistol that is designed to use black powder, or a black powder substitute, and that cannot use fixed ammunition. For purposes of this subdivision, the term "antique firearm" shall not include any weapon that incorporates a firearm frame or receiver, any firearm that is converted into a muzzle-loading weapon, or any muzzle-loading weapon that can be readily converted to fire fixed ammunition by replacing the barrel, bolt, breech-block, or any combination thereof or

4. Any curio or relic as defined in this subsection.

"Assault firearm" means any semi-automatic center-fire rifle or pistol which expels single or multiple projectiles by action of an explosion of a combustible material and is equipped at the time of the offense with a magazine which will hold more than 20 rounds of ammunition or designed by the manufacturer to accommodate a silencer or equipped with a folding stock.

"Curios or relics" means firearms that are of special interest to collectors by reason of some quality other than is associated with firearms intended for sporting use or as offensive or defensive weapons. To be recognized as curios or relics, firearms must fall within one of the following categories:

1. Firearms that were manufactured at least 50 years prior to the current date, which use rimfire or conventional centerfire fixed ammunition that is no longer manufactured in the United States and that is not readily available in the ordinary channels of commercial trade, but not including replicas thereof

2. Firearms that are certified by the curator of a municipal, state, or federal museum that exhibits firearms to be curios or relics of museum interest and

3. Any other firearms that derive a substantial part of their monetary value from the fact that they are novel, rare, bizarre, or because of their association with some historical figure, period, or event. Proof of qualification of a particular firearm under this category may be established by evidence of present value and evidence that like firearms are not available except as collectors' items, or that the value of like firearms available in ordinary commercial channels is substantially less.

"Dealer" means any person licensed as a dealer pursuant to 18 U.S.C. § 921 et seq.

"Firearm" means any handgun, shotgun, or rifle that will or is designed to or may readily be converted to expel single or multiple projectiles by action of an explosion of a combustible material.

"Handgun" means any pistol or revolver or other firearm originally designed, made and intended to fire single or multiple projectiles by means of an explosion of a combustible material from one or more barrels when held in one hand.

"Lawfully admitted for permanent residence" means the status of having been lawfully accorded the privilege of residing permanently in the United States as an immigrant in accordance with the immigration laws, such status not having changed.

G. The Department of Criminal Justice Services shall promulgate regulations to ensure the identity, confidentiality, and security of all records and data provided by the Department of State Police pursuant to this section.

H. The provisions of this section shall not apply to (i) transactions between persons who are licensed as firearms importers or collectors, manufacturers or dealers pursuant to 18 U.S.C. § 921 et seq. (ii) purchases by or sales to any law-enforcement officer or agent of the United States, the Commonwealth or any local government, or any campus police officer appointed under Article 3 (§ 23.1-809 et seq.) of Chapter 8 of Title 23.1 or (iii) antique firearms or curios or relics.

I. The provisions of this section shall not apply to restrict purchase, trade, or transfer of firearms by a resident of Virginia when the resident of Virginia makes such purchase, trade, or transfer in another state, in which case the laws and regulations of that state and the United States governing the purchase, trade, or transfer of firearms shall apply. A National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) check shall be performed prior to such purchase, trade, or transfer of firearms.

J. All licensed firearms dealers shall collect a fee of $2 for every transaction for which a criminal history record information check is required pursuant to this section, except that a fee of $5 shall be collected for every transaction involving an out-of-state resident. Such fee shall be transmitted to the Department of State Police by the last day of the month following the sale for deposit in a special fund for use by the State Police to offset the cost of conducting criminal history record information checks under the provisions of this section.

K. Any person willfully and intentionally making a materially false statement on the consent form required in subsection B or C or on such firearm transaction records as may be required by federal law shall be guilty of a Class 5 felony.

L. Except as provided in § 18.2-308.2:1, any dealer who willfully and intentionally sells, rents, trades, or transfers a firearm in violation of this section shall be guilty of a Class 6 felony.

L1. Any person who attempts to solicit, persuade, encourage, or entice any dealer to transfer or otherwise convey a firearm other than to the actual buyer, as well as any other person who willfully and intentionally aids or abets such person, shall be guilty of a Class 6 felony. This subsection shall not apply to a federal law-enforcement officer or a law-enforcement officer as defined in § 9.1-101, in the performance of his official duties, or other person under his direct supervision.

M. Any person who purchases a firearm with the intent to (i) resell or otherwise provide such firearm to any person who he knows or has reason to believe is ineligible to purchase or otherwise receive from a dealer a firearm for whatever reason or (ii) transport such firearm out of the Commonwealth to be resold or otherwise provided to another person who the transferor knows is ineligible to purchase or otherwise receive a firearm, shall be guilty of a Class 4 felony and sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of one year. However, if the violation of this subsection involves such a transfer of more than one firearm, the person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of five years. The prohibitions of this subsection shall not apply to the purchase of a firearm by a person for the lawful use, possession, or transport thereof, pursuant to § 18.2-308.7, by his child, grandchild, or individual for whom he is the legal guardian if such child, grandchild, or individual is ineligible, solely because of his age, to purchase a firearm.

N. Any person who is ineligible to purchase or otherwise receive or possess a firearm in the Commonwealth who solicits, employs, or assists any person in violating subsection M shall be guilty of a Class 4 felony and shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of five years.

O. Any mandatory minimum sentence imposed under this section shall be served consecutively with any other sentence.

P. All driver's licenses issued on or after July 1, 1994, shall carry a letter designation indicating whether the driver's license is an original, duplicate, or renewed driver's license.

Q. Prior to selling, renting, trading, or transferring any firearm owned by the dealer but not in his inventory to any other person, a dealer may require such other person to consent to have the dealer obtain criminal history record information to determine if such other person is prohibited from possessing or transporting a firearm by state or federal law. The Department of State Police shall establish policies and procedures in accordance with 28 C.F.R. § 25.6 to permit such determinations to be made by the Department of State Police, and the processes established for making such determinations shall conform to the provisions of this section.

R. Except as provided in subdivisions 1 and 2, it shall be unlawful for any person who is not a licensed firearms dealer to purchase more than one handgun within any 30-day period. For the purposes of this subsection, "purchase" does not include the exchange or replacement of a handgun by a seller for a handgun purchased from such seller by the same person seeking the exchange or replacement within the 30-day period immediately preceding the date of exchange or replacement. A violation of this subsection is punishable as a Class 1 misdemeanor.

1. Purchases in excess of one handgun within a 30-day period may be made upon completion of an enhanced background check, as described in this subsection, by special application to the Department of State Police listing the number and type of handguns to be purchased and transferred for lawful business or personal use, in a collector series, for collections, as a bulk purchase from estate sales, and for similar purposes. Such applications shall be signed under oath by the applicant on forms provided by the Department of State Police, shall state the purpose for the purchase above the limit, and shall require satisfactory proof of residency and identity. Such application shall be in addition to the firearms sales report required by the federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF). The Superintendent of State Police shall promulgate regulations, pursuant to the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.), for the implementation of an application process for purchases of handguns above the limit.

Upon being satisfied that these requirements have been met, the Department of State Police shall immediately issue to the applicant a nontransferable certificate, which shall be valid for seven days from the date of issue. The certificate shall be surrendered to the dealer by the prospective purchaser prior to the consummation of such sale and shall be kept on file at the dealer's place of business for inspection as provided in § 54.1-4201 for a period of not less than two years. Upon request of any local law-enforcement agency, and pursuant to its regulations, the Department of State Police may certify such local law-enforcement agency to serve as its agent to receive applications and, upon authorization by the Department of State Police, issue certificates immediately pursuant to this subdivision. Applications and certificates issued under this subdivision shall be maintained as records as provided in subdivision B 3. The Department of State Police shall make available to local law-enforcement agencies all records concerning certificates issued pursuant to this subdivision and all records provided for in subdivision B 3.

2. The provisions of this subsection shall not apply to:

a. A law-enforcement agency

b. An agency duly authorized to perform law-enforcement duties

c. A state or local correctional facility

d. A private security company licensed to do business within the Commonwealth

e. The purchase of antique firearms

f. A person whose handgun is stolen or irretrievably lost who deems it essential that such handgun be replaced immediately. Such person may purchase another handgun, even if the person has previously purchased a handgun within a 30-day period, provided that (i) the person provides the firearms dealer with a copy of the official police report or a summary thereof, on forms provided by the Department of State Police, from the law-enforcement agency that took the report of the lost or stolen handgun (ii) the official police report or summary thereof contains the name and address of the handgun owner, a description of the handgun, the location of the loss or theft, the date of the loss or theft, and the date the loss or theft was reported to the law-enforcement agency and (iii) the date of the loss or theft as reflected on the official police report or summary thereof occurred within 30 days of the person's attempt to replace the handgun. The firearms dealer shall attach a copy of the official police report or summary thereof to the original copy of the Virginia firearms transaction report completed for the transaction and retain it for the period prescribed by the Department of State Police

g. A person who trades in a handgun at the same time he makes a handgun purchase and as a part of the same transaction, provided that no more than one transaction of this nature is completed per day

h. A person who holds a valid Virginia permit to carry a concealed handgun

i. A person who purchases a handgun in a private sale. For purposes of this subdivision, "private sale" means a purchase from a person who makes occasional sales, exchanges, or purchases of firearms for the enhancement of a personal collection of curios or relics or who sells all or part of such collection of curios and relics or

j. A law-enforcement officer. For purposes of this subdivision, "law-enforcement officer" means any employee of a police department or sheriff's office that is part of or administered by the Commonwealth or any political subdivision thereof and who is responsible for the prevention and detection of crime and the enforcement of the penal, traffic, or highway laws of the Commonwealth.

1989, c. 745 1990, cc. 594, 692 1991, cc. 515, 525, 716 1992, cc. 637, 872 1993, cc. 451, 461, 486, 493, 674 1994, c. 624 1997, c. 341 1998, c. 844 2002, c. 695 2003, cc. 833, 976 2004, cc. 354, 461, 837, 904, 922 2005, cc. 578, 859 2007, c. 509 2008, cc. 854, 869 2009, cc. 813, 840 2011, c. 235 2012, cc. 37, 257, 776 2013, cc. 450, 662, 761, 774, 797 2015, c. 759 2016, cc. 697, 727 2020, cc. 887, 888, 991, 992, 1111, 1112, 1173.

The chapters of the acts of assembly referenced in the historical citation at the end of this section may not constitute a comprehensive list of such chapters and may exclude chapters whose provisions have expired.

The Royal African Company - Supplying Slaves to Jamestown

As early as 1618, King James I had granted a patent to a company that wanted to trade for gold and precious woods in Africa. Other groups also received rights to trade in Africa, but never dealt with slaves in any major way. English involvement in the slave trade would intensify after 1663, when a new patent was issued to the Company of Royal Adventurers. England had realized the money to be made trading slaves to the West Indies and Virginia. By 1668, over a quarter of the new company’s profits was derived from the slave trade.

Volunteer-in-Park Jerome Bridges portrays Anthony Johnson, an African who arrived at Jamestown in the first quarter of the seventeenth century.

Africans in Virginia’s Early Years

The first documented arrival of Africans to Virginia was in 1619, when an English warship, White Lion, arrived at Point Comfort in present-day Hampton. The African captives had been forcibly removed from a Portuguese slave ship subsequent to being attacked by the White Lion and another English warship, Treasurer, while sailing in the Bay of Campeche. The White Lion's English captain, John Jope, carried letters of marque from the Dutch Prince Maurice making it legal for his ship to sail as a privateer and attack any Spanish or Portuguese ships it encountered. The "20 and odd" Africans on the White Lion were traded to colony officials for food. These Africans were much-needed workers to cultivate tobacco, the new cash crop of Virginia. The institution of slavery slowly crept into Virginia legislation. By 1660, slavery as we think of it today was established in Virginia. Tobacco was extremely labor-intensive, and more and more workers were needed. The sale of Africans to Virginia planters promised to be a profitable endeavor.

In a detail from NPS artist Keith Rocco's painting of a Jamestown waterside scene in the 1660s, enslaved African load hogshead barrels of tobacco aboard a ship bound for England.

The Company’s Beginnings

At first, trading directly with other European countries was common in Virginia. But the Navigation Act of 1660 brought such relations to a close. Only English-owned ships could enter colonial ports. The Crown had realized the wealth that could be achieved through trade and wanted that wealth for England. Once the Navigation Act was passed, Virginia planters were forced to rely on the Mother Country to supply them with their labor force. To address this dearth, the Royal African Company was formed in 1672.

In a detail from NPS artist Keith Rocco's painting of a Jamestown waterside scene in the 1660s, newly-arrrived Africans are inspected by an English settler.

Agents in Jamestown

Merchants in London associated with residents of Jamestown were also heavily involved in the slave trade. John Jeffreys, one of these merchants, owned part of a rowhouse in New Towne, and historians speculate that slaves were sold in front of the building on a wharf. The Royal African Company also had agents in Virginia to whom slaves were delivered. These agents received a seven-percent commission on sales. John Page, Colonel Nathaniel Bacon and William Sherwood were all prominent Virginians who served as factors, agents or representatives for the Company.

The Company’s Decline

Many factors contributed to the loss of the Royal African Company’s monopoly in 1689. First and foremost, the Company was not achieving a profit as a matter of fact, it resorted to borrowing money to pay dividends. Then there were the complaints from the planters. The demand for slaves was always too high for the Company alone to supply, and the planters urged that the monopoly be abolished so that more slaves could be imported. Finally, the Company, which was always heavily patronized by the Stuart monarchs, fell out of favor when James II was deposed and William and Mary came to the throne.

Sources Consulted:

Donnan, Elizabeth. Documents Illustrative of the History of the Slave Trade to America: Volume I (1441 – 1700). Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1930.

Kingsbury, Susan Myra. The Records of the Virginia Company of London (in four volumes). Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office: 1906.

McCartney, Martha W. A Study of the Africans and African Americans on Jamestown Island and at Green Spring, 1619 – 1803. Williamsburg, Virginia: National Park Service and Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 2003. (This reference is available on-line through this link. Please note this is a PDF document and requires Adobe Reader to open. It is a 4.5 MB file consisting of 262 pages)

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