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President Richard Nixon resigns, Henry David Thoreau published Walden Pond, Jesse Owens wins his 4th gold medal in the Summer Olympics, and the first Hispanic is named as Secretary of Education in This Day in History video. The date is August 9th. Adolph Hitler opened up this Berlin Summer Olympic.
The foundation of the American government, its purpose, form, and structure, are in the Constitution of the United States. The Constitutional Convention adopted the Constitution on September 17, 1787.
The Bill of Rights is the first 10 amendments to the Constitution. It guarantees greater constitutional protection for individual liberties and lists specific prohibitions on government power. There are 27 Constitutional Amendments in all. The 27th Amendment, which was originally proposed in 1789, was not ratified until 1992.
Where to View the Constitution
You can view the original, parchment copy of the U.S. Constitution at the National Archives Building in Washington, DC. You can also view an online copy of the U.S. Constitution or order a printed copy of the Constitution.
Could Kamala Harris Win The Presidency In 2024? Here’s What History Tells Us.
The fact that California Sen. Kamala Harris is Joe Biden&rsquos vice presidential nominee is undeniably historic. She is only the third woman to run as vice president on a major-party ticket, and of the two main parties, she is the first Asian American and the first Black woman to run in the general election as president or vice president.
As my colleague Perry Bacon Jr. noted on Tuesday, Biden&rsquos choice could also have ramifications that extend far beyond the 2020 election. If Biden wins in November, his VP pick could go on to become the first woman president. That presents a number of challenges, which we&rsquoll discuss later, but first, let&rsquos look at the track record of VPs making it to the Oval Office.
Since John Adams first held the VP post in 1789, 14 of 47 vice presidents have gone on to become president, 1 making it the most likely &mdash albeit still far from certain &mdash stepping stone to the White House. The number of vice presidents who have sought the presidency has really skyrocketed in modern times, too. Of the 13 VPs since the end of World War II (excluding Vice President Mike Pence), eight &mdash or more than half &mdash have gone on to become their party&rsquos presidential nominee. However, as you can see in the table below, far fewer &mdash just three &mdash have won a presidential election, and just four have become president at all. Biden, of course, is hoping to become the fifth modern VP to accomplish this feat.
Most vice presidents run for president &hellip but not all win
Vice presidents since 1948 who have run for president, and whether they won their party&rsquos nomination and the subsequent presidential election
|Vice President||Party||Won nomination||Won pres. election|
|George H.W. Bush||R||✓||✓|
* Nixon lost the first time he ran for president, in 1960, after serving as vice president, but ran again in 1968 and won.
&dagger Johnson and Ford both became president upon the death or resignation of their predecessors, so they technically ran as incumbents.
Spiro Agnew, Nelson Rockefeller and Dick Cheney didn&rsquot run for president after serving as vice president. This list does not include Vice President Mike Pence, as he could still run for president in the future.
That&rsquos not a great batting average, especially when you consider that both Lyndon Johnson and Gerald Ford first became president because their predecessors could not finish their terms &mdash in Johnson&rsquos case, because John F. Kennedy was assassinated, and, in Ford&rsquos case, because Richard Nixon resigned. At 77, Biden is the oldest major-party nominee in history and, if elected, would be the oldest president to hold the office, so without getting too macabre, there could easily be a scenario in which his VP must finish his term.
Biden&rsquos advanced age has understandably prompted many to assign huge importance to his vice presidential pick and what it might signal for the future of the Democratic Party. Even if Biden wins and serves out his term, it&rsquos not clear that he&rsquod run for a second one. He has portrayed himself as a transitional candidate, describing his campaign as a &ldquobridge&rdquo to the next generation of Democratic leaders, so it&rsquos entirely possible that Harris, who is 55, will be thought of as the future of the party no matter what.
Harris is likely eyeing a future White House run, too. For one thing, she campaigned for it in 2020. And, as we mentioned at the outset, it&rsquos pretty common for VPs to run. Just three of the vice presidents since 1948 &mdash Spiro Agnew, Nelson Rockefeller and Dick Cheney &mdash didn&rsquot seek the presidency after serving as VP. But that doesn&rsquot mean if Harris were to run it would be easy. It turns out that running for president after being VP is kind of a mixed bag.
Take someone like Ford. After assuming the presidency in 1974 when Nixon resigned, Ford mounted a run for a full term in 1976, but it was hardly a coronation. Before he won the GOP nomination, he had to fend off a serious primary challenge from Ronald Reagan that went all the way to the national convention. Some elected vice presidents, like Nixon, George H.W. Bush and Al Gore, have had an easier time winning their party nominations against weak opposition, but others, like Alben Barkley and Dan Quayle, didn&rsquot even make it to the general election.
It&rsquos impossible to say which of these comparisons might prove most apt for Harris &mdash we don&rsquot even know if she&rsquoll be vice president &mdash but it&rsquos not hard to imagine her facing a major intraparty challenge in the future. For one, we&rsquove never had a woman vice president, let alone a woman president &mdash and past elections have shown us just how challenging it can be for a highly qualified woman to win. For his part, Biden has sparked criticism for botching the selection process &mdash the only thing we knew up until Tuesday was that he would pick a woman to be his running mate &mdash making the conversation less about his running mate&rsquos credentials and more about whether she was the &ldquoright&rdquo kind of woman for the job. It&rsquos also possible that four years from now, the Democratic Party will have moved even further to the left, and Biden and Harris&rsquos more moderate politics will have fallen out of fashion, encouraging a primary challenge.
Nevertheless, if Harris does become vice president, it undoubtedly raises her odds that she might one day occupy the White House and lead the Democratic Party in a presidential election. Even after her underwhelming 2020 bid, one only has to look at Biden&rsquos career arc to see how Harris&rsquos presidential aspirations could benefit from serving as VP. It wasn&rsquot until Barack Obama made Biden his vice president in 2008 that he established a strong enough profile within the party to become its preferred choice in 2020. (His two prior presidential bids were unsuccessful.) It is, of course, too soon to say whether Biden will win in November, but he could become the 15th vice president to reach the White House. And someday Harris could easily become the 16th.
9 Key Dates in History Every American Should Know Part II 1946 to 2012 .
I hope you enjoyed Key Dates in American History Part I, and you’ve settled down nicely ready to continue our lesson to bring us up to date. The ending of the Second World War was among the key dates in American History. America with its vast resources helped establish forms of order in Europe and other parts of the world. The United States has continued to be a primary influence in the world with key dates in American History, also becoming significant for other countries. Here are some more of those key dates in American History that have influenced our world of today!
The Story of Independence Day and America’s Birthday
Independence Day is the national holiday of the United States of America commemorating the signing of the Declaration of Independence by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
At the time of the signing the US consisted of 13 colonies under the rule of England’s King George III. There was growing unrest in the colonies concerning the taxes that had to be paid to England. This was commonly referred to as “Taxation without Representation” as the colonists did not have any representation in the English Parliament and had no say in what went on. As the unrest grew in the colonies, King George sent extra troops to help control any rebellion. In 1774 the 13 colonies sent delegates to Philadelphia Pennsylvania to form the First Continental Congress. The delegates were unhappy with England, but were not yet ready to declare war.
In April 1775 as the King’s troops advanced on Concord Massachusetts Paul Revere would sound the alarm that “The British are coming, the British are coming” as he rode his horse through the late night streets.
The battle of Concord and its “shot heard round the world” would mark the unofficial beginning of the colonies war for Independence.
The following May the colonies again sent delegates to the Second Continental Congress. For almost a year the congress tried to work out its differences with England, again without formally declaring war.
By June 1776 their efforts had become hopeless and a committee was formed to compose a formal declaration of independence. Headed by Thomas Jefferson, the committee included John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Robert R. Livingston and Roger Sherman. Thomas Jefferson was chosen to write the first draft which was presented to the congress on June 28. After various changes a vote was taken late in the afternoon of July 4th. Of the 13 colonies, 9 voted in favor of the Declaration, 2 – Pennsylvania and South Carolina voted No, Delaware undecided and New York abstained.
To make it official John Hancock, President of the Continental Congress, signed the Declaration of Independence. It is said that John Hancock signed his name “with a great flourish” so “King George can read that without spectacles!.”
The following day copies of the Declaration were distributed. The first newspaper to print the Declaration was the Pennsylvania Evening Post on July 6, 1776. On July 8th the Declaration had its first public reading in Philadelphia’s Independence Square. Twice that day the Declaration was read to cheering crowds and pealing church bells. Even the bell in Independence Hall was rung. The “Province Bell” would later be renamed “Liberty Bell” after its inscription –
Proclaim Liberty Throughout All the Land Unto All the Inhabitants Thereof
And although the signing of the Declaration was not completed until August, the 4th of July has been accepted as the official anniversary of United States independence. The first Independence Day celebration took place the following year – July 4 1777. By the early 1800s the traditions of parades, picnics, and fireworks were established as the way to celebrate America’s birthday. And although fireworks have been banned in most places because of their danger, most towns and cities usually have big firework displays for all to see and enjoy.
Elsewhere on timeanddate.com
Confederate Memorial Day
On Confederate Memorial Day remembers the soldiers who died fighting for the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War (1861-1865). It is a state holiday in some parts of the United States.
Peace Officers Memorial Day
Peace Officers Memorial Day is held annually in the United States on May 15 in honor of federal, state and local officers killed or disabled in the line of duty.
On Independence Day, Americans celebrate the anniversary of publication of the Declaration of Independence from Great Britain in 1776.
Tisha B’Av is on the ninth day of the month of Av in the Jewish calendar.
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Presidents’ Day, officially Washington’s Birthday, in the United States, holiday (third Monday in February) popularly recognized as honouring George Washington and Abraham Lincoln. The day is sometimes understood as a celebration of the birthdays and lives of all U.S. presidents.
When is Presidents’ Day?
Presidents’ Day is celebrated on the third Monday in the month of February in the United States.
What is the origin of Presidents’ Day?
The birthday of U.S. President George Washington (February 22) was first celebrated as a federal holiday in the United States in the 1880s. In 1968 the holiday was adapted to also honour the birth of U.S. President Abraham Lincoln (February 12) and moved to the third Monday in February. Presidents’ Day is sometimes considered to be a celebration of all U.S. presidents.
Why is Presidents’ Day on a Monday?
Presidents’ Day is celebrated on the third Monday in February because of the Uniform Monday Holiday Bill, which moved a number of federal holidays to Mondays when it was passed by the United States Congress in 1968. This change was intended to allow American workers a number of three-day weekends throughout the year.
The origin of Presidents’ Day lies in the 1880s, when the birthday of Washington—commander of the Continental Army during the American Revolution and the first president of the United States—was first celebrated as a federal holiday. In 1968 Congress passed the Uniform Monday Holiday Bill, which moved a number of federal holidays to Mondays. The change was designed to schedule certain holidays so that workers had a number of long weekends throughout the year, but it has been opposed by those who believe that those holidays should be celebrated on the dates they actually commemorate. During debate on the bill, it was proposed that Washington’s Birthday be renamed Presidents’ Day to honour the birthdays of both Washington (February 22) and Lincoln (February 12) although Lincoln’s birthday was celebrated in many states, it was never an official federal holiday. Following much discussion, Congress rejected the name change. After the bill went into effect in 1971, however, Presidents’ Day became the commonly accepted name, due in part to retailers’ use of that name to promote sales and the holiday’s proximity to Lincoln’s birthday. Presidents’ Day is usually marked by public ceremonies in Washington, D.C., and throughout the country.
The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Adam Augustyn, Managing Editor, Reference Content.
This Day In History: 08/09/1974 - For Becomes President - HISTORY
“Taxation without representation!” was the battle cry in America’s 13 Colonies, which were forced to pay taxes to England’s King George III despite having no representation in the British Parliament. As dissatisfaction grew, British troops were sent in to quell the early movement toward rebellion. Repeated attempts by the Colonists to resolve the crisis without military conflict proved fruitless.
On June 11, 1776, the Colonies’ Second Continental Congress met in Philadelphia and formed a committee whose express purpose was drafting a document that would formally sever their ties with Great Britain. The committee included Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Roger Sherman and Robert R. Livingston. Jefferson, who was considered the strongest and most eloquent writer, crafted the original draft document (as seen above). A total of 86 changes were made to his draft and the Continental Congress officially adopted the final version on July 4, 1776.
The following day, copies of the Declaration of Independence were distributed, and on July 6, The Pennsylvania Evening Post became the first newspaper to print the extraordinary document. The Declaration of Independence has since become our nation’s most cherished symbol of liberty.
Bonfires and Illuminations
On July 8, 1776, the first public readings of the Declaration were held in Philadelphia’s Independence Square to the ringing of bells and band music. One year later, on July 4, 1777, Philadelphia marked Independence Day by adjourning Congress and celebrating with bonfires, bells and fireworks.
The custom eventually spread to other towns, both large and small, where the day was marked with processions, oratory, picnics, contests, games, military displays and fireworks. Observations throughout the nation became even more common at the end of the War of 1812 with Great Britain.
In June of 1826, Thomas Jefferson sent a letter to Roger C. Weightman, declining an invitation to come to Washington, D.C. to help celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence. It was the last letter that Jefferson, who was gravely ill, ever wrote. In it, Jefferson says of the document:
“May it be to the world, what I believe it will be … the signal of arousing men to burst the chains … and to assume the blessings and security of self-government. That form, which we have substituted, restores the free right to the unbounded exercise of reason and freedom of opinion. All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. …For ourselves, let the annual return of this day forever refresh our recollections of these rights, and an undiminished devotion to them.”
– Thomas Jefferson
June 24, 1826 Monticello
Congress established Independence Day as a holiday in 1870, and in 1938 Congress reaffirmed it as a paid holiday for federal employees. Today, communities across the nation mark this major midsummer holiday with parades, firework displays, picnics and performances of “The Star-Spangled Banner” and marches by John Philip Sousa.
Photo of the “original Rough draught” of the Declaration of Independence courtesy of the Library of Congress.
The FBI's most wanted man is arrested after 16 years on the run on June 22, 2011.
Boston crime boss Whitey Bulger had been in the number two spot on the Most Wanted list for years, but lasted little more than a month in the top spot after the death of Osama bin Laden.
Bulger had gone into hiding in 1994 after getting a tip-off from his FBI handler that he was about to be arrested.
In addition to being a gangster and mass murderer, Bulger was also an FBI informant.
He was arrested after a tip-off from neighbour Anna Björn, a former Miss Iceland.
Björn had befriended Bulger's girlfriend over the care of an abandoned cat, and recognised him watching CNN.
She received a US$2 million reward for turning him in.
Bulger was murdered in prison in 2018 at the age of 89, stabbed with a shiv and beaten with a padlock wrapped in a sock.
He was the inspiration for Johnny Depp's character in Black Mass, Jack Nicholson's in The Departed and David Spader's character in The Blacklist.
The bloodiest military campaign in history begins on June 22, 1941, with the beginning of Operation Barbarossa.
Nearly four million German, Italian, Hungarian, Slovakian and Romanian troops invade the Soviet Union, making extraordinary territorial gains.
During the operation, the Nazis rapidly expanded their campaign of murder and genocide, killing millions of civilians, many of them specifically because they were Jewish.
Russian leader Joseph Stalin was taken completely by surprise by the invasion – his inaction costing countless lives.
It took a year and a half for the Soviet Union to halt German advances and reverse the gains of Operation Barbarossa.
Thirty million people, mostly civilians, died on the Eastern Front of World War II.
Argentina football star Diego Maradona punches the ball into the goal during the FIFA World Cup Quarter Finals match against England on May 22, 1986.
Because the referees did not have a clear view of the play, the goal stood.
After the game, Maradona said the goal was scored a little with his head, "and a little with the hand of God".
Argentina went on to win the match, and the World Cup as a whole.
In 2005, Maradona admitted the goal was from an illegitimate handball.
He later described it as "symbolic revenge" for the Falklands War.
Gerald R. Ford Event Timeline
Spiro T. Agnew resigns as Vice President on charges of income tax evasion.
Nixon announces he will nominate Gerald R. Ford to be Vice-President replacing Agnew. Ford then is the first to become Vice President under the terms of Section 2 of the 25 th Amendment.
Takes Oath of Office as Vice President following his confirmation by the House (12/06/1973 by vote of 387-35) and the Senate (11/27/1973 by a vote of 93-3). “I am a Ford, not a Lincoln.”
Assumes Presidency following resignation of Nixon. Ford is sworn in by Chief Justice Warren Burger. Nixon resigned after White House tapes reveal his efforts to obstruct justice in the Watergate Scandal. Immediately after taking the Oath of Office, Ford makes Remarks, and declares “our long national nightmare is over. Our Constitution works. . .”
Address to Joint Session of Congress , voices concern over inflation and announces that he will oppose all excessive spending during this period .
Proclamation 4311—Granting Pardon to Richard Nixon. Ford grants full pardon to President Nixon in attempt to end the political divide over the impeachment. Many Americans disapprove this decision.
Proclamation 4313—Announcing a Program for the Return of Vietnam Era Draft Evaders and Military Deserters. Announces program of clemency for draft evaders of Vietnam. Individuals can achieve clemency through alternative military service.
Executive Order 11808 Establishing the Economic Policy Board , which is responsible for all economic policy, both domestic and international .
Addresses joint session of Congress regarding the economy. Speech includes proposal to reduce reliance on foreign oil, as well as increase United States food production. Ford recommends a 5% tax increase as well as reduction in federal spending. Finally, he announces a plan called “Whip Inflation Now” that will focus on combating inflation.
Signs Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, creating three new entities including the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, which assumes responsibility for licensing and regulation of nuclear facilities.
Signs Federal Elections Campaign Act of 1974, which significantly reforms campaign finance. The act limits the amount that can be donated to candidates, establishes public funds for elections, and creates the Federal Election Commission to enforce the bill.
In testimony before the House Judiciary Committee, makes a long statement about the pardon of Richard Nixon and answers questions from Committee members. Only Abraham Lincoln and Woodrow Wilson had appeared for testimony while President.
Vetoes revisions to the Freedom of Information Act, which expands public access to government documents. Ford expressed concern about military and intelligence secrets and law enforcement files. Congress overrode the veto and passes the bill on 11/21/1974.
Travels to Nogales, Mexico to meet Mexican President Luis Echeverria.
Veto of the Vocational Rehabilitation Act Amendments. Ford argues that the bill engages inappropriately in administration “the bill blurs accountability.” His veto was overridden on 11/21/1974 (together with the Freedom of Information Act Amendments), the first of 12 veto overrides (fewer than Andrew Johnson, but equaling Harry Truman).
Midterm Elections. Republicans lose 48 seats in the House and 5 seats in the Senate.