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The term "Republican Party" has been used twice in American history. The first Republican Party was organized by Thomas Jefferson in opposition to the Federalist Party after he resigned from Washington's cabinet in 1793. Andrew Jackson dropped the Republican part of the name, which became simply the Democratic Party around 1830. Henry Clay and John Quincy Adams adopted the name "National Republican" for a time, but when all the major opponents to Jackson merged into the Whig Party in 1834, the name "Republican" went into abeyance for twenty years.It was revived in 1854, following the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. The exact date of the Formation of the Republican Party is not certain, but it is generally credited to a meeting in Ripon, Wisconsin, on February 28, 1854. Many more conventions and meetings were held on July 13, the anniversary of the passage of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, which had prohibited slavery north of the Ohio River. In fact, the use of the word "Republican" recalled the first Jeffersonian Republican Party, and Jefferson was regarded as one of the instigators of the Northwest Ordinance.Support for the new Republican party came principally from the dying Whig Party and the Free-Soil Party, plus some disaffected Northern Democrats. The first presidential candidate of the Republican Party was John C. Frémont in 1856. Although he didn't win, he carried eleven states.Support for Fremont could be dangerous for a Southerner. The phrase "black Republicans" was frequently used, and it did not refer to race. When he declined to resign, the board of trustees dismissed him.In 1858, Republicans increased their representation in Congress and in 1860 nominated Abraham Lincoln for president. In a four-way contest in November, Lincoln received a plurality of the popular vote and a clear majority in the Electoral College.Southern states began to secede soon after Lincoln's election and the first actual combat of the Civil War took place not long after his inauguration. The Radical Republicans in Congress criticized him for being slow on emancipation, and soft on Southerners. For the Election of 1864, the Republican Party substituted "National Union Party" for their original name and matched Lincoln with a Democrat, Andrew Johnson. This presented a serious problem after Lincoln's assassination in 1865, when Johnson's preferences for reconstruction came into sharp conflict with the Congressional Republicans. After Johnson fired Edwin Stanton as Secretary of War in defiance of the Tenure of Office Act, Republicans obtained his impeachment and came within a vote of convicting him in the Senate.Ulysses S. Grant was the choice of the Republican Party in 1868 and again in 1872. As a popular war hero, and with the southern states still held in check by Reconstruction, Grant won easily both times, although the dismay which the rampant corruption of his administration generated led to an alternative Liberal Republican faction in 1872 that lasted only one election.After Grant, the Republican Party was convulsed by a struggle between proponents of civil service and other anti-graft measures, called Half-Breeds, and opponents, called Stalwarts. The epitome of this tendency was the election of William McKinley, with the backing of Mark Hanna, on a decidedly pro-business platform in 1896, defeating the populist William Jennings Bryan.When McKinley's vice president Garrat Hobart died in 1899, the Republican Party needed a replacement for the ticket in 1900. Largely with the intent of removing an irritating person from a position of influence, party leaders pressured New York governor Theodore Roosevelt to take the spot. During his presidency, he goaded the Republican Party into supporting a progressive agenda.Not choosing to run again in 1908, Theodore Roosevelt put his support behind William Howard Taft, whom he considered to be a useful instrument for the continuation of his policies. When Taft proved unsatisfactory to Roosevelt, a campaign was undertaken to give Roosevelt rather than Taft the Republican Party nomination for the Election of 1912. The convention, however, stayed with Taft and Roosevelt's partisans bolted to form the Progressive Party. Roosevelt drew away so many Republican votes that Taft finished third, but the winner was Woodrow Wilson of the Democrats. Although the progressives returned to the fold, Wilson won again in the election of 1916 with the slogan, "He kept us out of war." Soon after his second inauguration, Wilson led the country into war.During the Roaring Twenties, the Republican Party supported prohibition and maintained a pro-business attitude. It's first president of the decade, Warren G. Harding, was amiable and attractive but allowed corruption to infect his administration. After his death, Calvin Coolidge restored public confidence in the integrity of government. In 1928, Coolidge passed the baton to his Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover, who brought a solid reputation as a humanitarian and effective administrator.Unfortunately for Hoover, the Republican Party and, of course, the whole country, the United States entered The Great Depression within the first year of Hoover's administration. Hoover was not complacent about the depression, but his endeavors, such as the Reconstruction Finance Corporation of 1932, struck many as aimed at helping the rich and powerful more than those most in need. In the election of 1932, the Republicans were swept from office by Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Democrats. In 1936, the party hit bottom, winning only two states behind Alf Landon, governor of Kansas.In the next two elections, the Democrats won again with Roosevelt but the Republicans were able to chip away at his winning percentage. Candidate Thomas Dewey, encouraged by the belief that victory was in the bag, ran the equivalent of a football "prevent defense" for his campaign, while Harry S. Truman conducted an active "whistlestop^ campaign that gained him popular sympathy and, in November, election to the presidency in his own right.Republicans finally returned to national power in 1952, with the election of World War II hero Dwight D. Eisenhower as president. Although he won again in 1956, Eisenhower's "coattails" were not strong and the Republicans did not control Congress except in 1952. In 1956, Eisenhower became the first president since Zachary Taylor to begin his term facing opposition control of both houses.Eisenhower's vice-president Richard M. Nixon was nominated by the Republican Party for the election of 1960 and lost narrowly to John F. Kennedy. After Kennedy's assassination, Lyndon Johnson pushed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 through Congress, fulfilling a pledge to continue Kennedy's programs but deeply alienating the conservative Southern Democrats. When the Republican Party nominated the ultraconservative Barry Goldwater to oppose Johnson in the election of 1964, Republicans lost the support almost every state except some from the Deep South.The Republicans malaise didn't last long. Despite a crushing defeat at the polls in 1964, the Republicans soon found themselves watching a Democratic Party tear itself apart over the Vietnam War. The Watergate Scandal ended Nixon's second term prematurely and the aftershocks brought defeat at the polls in the 1974 midterms and the 1976 general election.Meanwhile, conservatives were reasserting themselves. With a new standard bearer in Ronald Reagan, the conservative wing had challenged Gerald Ford strongly in the 1976 convention. Reagan skillfully packaged programs that were not much different from Goldwater's in a manner that was acceptable to a majority of Americans. Republican victories from 1980 to 1988 were based on policies of a strong military and tax cuts regardless of budget deficits.The term GOP is an abbreviation for "Grand Old Party," a phrase first applied to the Republican party by the Chicago Tribune after the Election of 1888. "Grand Old Party" is no longer current, but the abbreviation GOP is handy for newspaper headlines.Important Republican party dates:Date of First Meeting: Ripon, Wisconsin, February 28, 1854Date of First Convention: Jackson, Michigan, July 6, 1854Date of First National Convention: Philadelphia, June 17, 1856Date of First National Election Win: November 6, 1860
Why is the Elephant a Symbol of the Republican Party?
The Republican Party, or the Grand Old Party, is one of the two most successful and major political parties in the US (the other party is the Democratic Party). The party was founded in 1854 by those who were opposed to the Kansas-Nebraska Act which allowed for slavery to be expanded into other territories within the US. Since its founding, a total of 19 people have been elected president on a Republican ticket, including the incumbent president, Donald Trump. The Republican Party is headquartered in Washington DC’s 310 First Street SE and has a membership of over 30 million people.
Like most, if not all, political parties around the world, the Republican Party has a party symbol which is associated with its ideologies and beliefs. The party’s traditional symbol is an elephant. However, an alternate symbol for the party in states such as New York, Indiana, and Ohio is the bald eagle while log cabin is used in Kentucky. Generally, the party is synonymous with the elephant. According to the Republicans, an elephant is strong and dignified, which is part of what the party advocate for. For a long time, the party did not have consistent colors. However, the color red became associated with the Republicans after the 2000 election. The red color was used by the major media houses on electoral maps to represent the states won by the Republican candidate while the Democratic Party was represented by a blue color. Since then the Republican Party has always been represented by the red color. The color is also included on the party symbol.
How the Elephant became a Party Symbol
The elephant was not intentionally decided or chosen to represent the Republican Party. The symbol was first used as a political symbol in 1864 during Lincoln’s campaign and also in 1872 by the Harper’s. However, Thomas Nest is credited with popularizing the symbol. He first published it in Harper’s Weekly in 1874 under the title “The Third Panic”.In his drawing, Nast depicted a donkey clothed in a lion’s skin scaring and chasing away the animals in the zoo, including the elephant which was labeled “the Republican vote.” The elephant was shown as standing near a pit. The cartoon portrayed Nast’s frustration with the Republican, the party that he had supported since its emergence in New York. He felt that the party was straying away from social liberalism.
In March 1877, following a controversial presidential election, Nast published another article depicting a battered and bruised elephant crouching at the tombstone of the Democratic Party. He believed that the Republican’s victory in the presidential election was both bitter and damaging. In 1884, Nast drew another cartoon of a “scared elephant” believing that the Republican Party was not as bold as it was in the past years. In the following years, most cartoons used the animal to represent the Republican Party. The party eventually adopted the animal its official party symbol, saying that the elephant is strong and dignified. Nast is also associated with the creating of the donkey which is the Democratic Party symbol and the modern image of Santa Claus of Father Christmas.
How did this switch happen?
Eric Rauchway, professor of American history at the University of California, Davis, pins the transition to the turn of the 20th century, when a highly influential Democrat named William Jennings Bryan blurred party lines by emphasizing the government's role in ensuring social justice through expansions of federal power &mdash traditionally, a Republican stance.
But Republicans didn't immediately adopt the opposite position of favoring limited government.
"Instead, for a couple of decades, both parties are promising an augmented federal government devoted in various ways to the cause of social justice," Rauchway wrote in an archived 2010 blog post for the Chronicles of Higher Education. Only gradually did Republican rhetoric drift to the counterarguments. The party's small-government platform cemented in the 1930s with its heated opposition to the New Deal.
But why did Bryan and other turn-of-the-century Democrats start advocating for big government?
According to Rauchway, they, like Republicans, were trying to win the West. The admission of new western states to the union in the post-Civil War era created a new voting bloc, and both parties were vying for its attention.
Democrats seized upon a way of ingratiating themselves to western voters: Republican federal expansions in the 1860s and 1870s had turned out favorable to big businesses based in the northeast, such as banks, railroads and manufacturers, while small-time farmers like those who had gone west received very little.
Both parties tried to exploit the discontent this generated, by promising the little guy some of the federal help that had previously gone to the business sector. From this point on, Democrats stuck with this stance &mdash favoring federally funded social programs and benefits &mdash while Republicans were gradually driven to the counterposition of hands-off government.
From a business perspective, Rauchway pointed out, the loyalties of the parties did not really switch. "Although the rhetoric and to a degree the policies of the parties do switch places," he wrote, "their core supporters don't &mdash which is to say, the Republicans remain, throughout, the party of bigger businesses it's just that in the earlier era bigger businesses want bigger government and in the later era they don't."
In other words, earlier on, businesses needed things that only a bigger government could provide, such as infrastructure development, a currency and tariffs. Once these things were in place, a small, hands-off government became better for business.
Originally published on Live Science. This article was originally published on Sept. 24, 2012 and updated on Nov. 2, 2020.
Separation Anxiety in Pets
Separation anxiety in pets is a real thing and recognizing the warning signs is important.
Since March, Covid-19 required most of the world to quarantine in their homes. Majority of people ended up working from home for nearly five months. This meant pet owners were constantly with their pets giving them attention, playing with them, letting them out etc. Therefore, when the world slowly started to open up again and pet owners began returning to normal life work schedules away from the home, pet owners noticed a difference in the way their pet acted. Many pets develop separation anxiety especially during this crazy time when majority people were stuck inside barely leaving the house.
Separation Anxiety in Pets Can Lead to:
Chewing, Digging and Destruction
What Causes Separation Anxiety:
A number of things can cause separation anxiety in pets. A clear reason right now is due to covid-19 requiring individuals to stay home for extended periods of time. Then these individuals were able to return to their daily lives leaving pets along for extended periods of time. Another reason is some adoptable dogs may have separation anxiety when first adopted because they fear their guardian may leave. Another cause is if a pet experiences a sudden change in its normal routine for example covid-19 it can in return cause separation anxiety in them. Be aware that also moving can cause separation anxiety so if your dog and you move around a lot it can trigger separation anxiety in your pet.
How to Maintain Separation Anxiety:
If your pet has a mild case of separation anxiety try turning when you leave into something exciting for your pet. This can mean offering them treats before you leave so they start to associate you leaving with getting a treat. It can also be helpful to leave them puzzle like toys like the brand KONG offers toys that you can put treats into or put food like peanut butter, or cheese in. This toy will distract your pet for a while, and they get a reward when they play with the toy. These toys try to offer only to your pet when you leave the house. This will train your pet to start to enjoy the time when you leave because they know they will be given a reward.
If you pet has a moderate case of separation anxiety it can take more time to get them accustomed to you leaving. This means taking the process of leaving them way slower. Start only leaving your pet for short periods at a time and continue to reward them. As they begin to get used to it increase the period of which you are gone. Over time your pet will start to recognize that it is oaky you are gone because they receive rewards. For dogs who have severe anxiety especially when they notice you put on shoes or grab your keys. For these pets try to associate these items with you not always leaving. Try to use these items but not leave to show your pet they are not to be feared of these items. If you have a pet who typically follows you around try to do things like telling your dog to sit and stay outside a bathroom door while you enter that room. Gradually increase the time you leave your pet on the other side of the door. This trains a pet that they can be by themselves and will be okay. This process will take a while so remain calm and patient with your pet. This process should start out in a room but should overtime get up to you being able to leave your house and go outside without your pet following. Continue to watch for signs of stress in your pet like pacing, trembling, panting etc. If any of these signs and others appear take a step back and move slower. During this overall process it is important you take it slowly so try to not really leave your pet at all which can be very difficult. Try to arrange if you do need to leave that someone like a friend can stop by and be with your pet or try using a doggy daycare service just so your pet is not totally alone.
Some Other Tips:
When greeting your pet after being gone say hello in a calm manner and then ignore them until they begin to remain calm. Same thing with saying goodbye remain calm and do not give into them being wild and crazy. To calm them try having them perform a task they know like sit or down. Another tip is to possible crate train your pet. If your pet associates their crate with being a safe place this can ease their anxiety when you do go to leave. It can also be helpful if you do not crate your pet to provide a safe room that your pet typically fees the most comfortable in. Another tip is to provide plenty of mental stimulation for your pet like treats and toys. Also try giving your dog some sort of exercise before you leave every day. Leaving hidden treats and food for your pet to find throughout the day will also keep them busy and entertained. If none of the above tips help, try seeking help from a professional in pet behaviors. They will be able to determine a regimen to help you and your pet get better. Medication may also be necessary for severe cases so to speak to a veterinarian about the different options for your pet.
Separation anxiety can be common in pets especially after the year everyone has had. Look for signs of separation anxiety in your pets and notice the different ways you can assist your pet in getting better. Also remember to never punish your pet for any anxious behaviors. Do your best to not discipline and instead use these tips to avoid future behaviors. Separation anxiety can be maintained with patience.
The Inconvenient Truth About the Republican Party
When you think of the Republican Party, what comes to mind? If you’re like many Americans, you may associate the GOP with racism, sexism, and general inequality. It’s a commonly pushed narrative by left-leaning media and academia, but as former Vanderbilt Professor of Political Science Carol Swain explains, the Republican Party was actually responsible for nearly every advancement for minorities and women in U.S. history—and remains the champion of equality to this day.
Contrary to popular characterizations of the two parties, the Republican Party has a longer history of fighting for civil rights than the Democratic Party.
After the Republican Party’s establishment in 1854, its first platform promised to defeat “those twin relics of barbarism: polygamy and slavery.”
Republicans feared that as western territories became states, polygamy, which allowed men to marry multiple women, and slavery might expand.
Related video: “The Inconvenient Truth About the Democratic Party” – Carol Swain
Inconvenient fact: The Republican Party was founded in part to fight slavery—and Democrats tried to stand in the way.
The first Republican president, Abraham Lincoln, was elected in 1860.
Six weeks after Lincoln was elected, South Carolina, a state dominated by Democrats, voted to secede from the union.
The Civil War that followed led to the Republicans’ passage of the 13th Amendment, which freed the slaves.
Republicans next passed the 14th Amendment, which gave African Americans citizenship.
Republicans then passed the 15th Amendment, which gave African Americans the vote.
Related video: “Why Did the Democratic South Become Republican?” – Carol Swain
The Republican Party was the first to include minority candidates and was more diverse than the Democratic Party for a century.
Shortly after the Civil War, the first black senator, Hiram Revels, and the first black congressman, Jefferson Long, were sworn in. Both of them were Republicans.
The first female member of Congress, Jeannette Rankin, was a Republican.
The first Hispanic senator, Joseph Hernandez, was Republican.
The first Asian senator, Hiram Fong, was Republican as well.
Related video: “Who Are the Racists: Conservatives or Liberals?” – Derryck Green
The Republican Party has a long history of fighting for women’s rights, including the right to vote.
In 1862, the Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act was passed by the Republican-controlled Congress to put an end to polygamy, which threatens women’s rights.
In 1868, the Republican Party Platform included a plank calling for a woman’s right to vote.
In 1920, after 52 years of Democratic Party opposition, the 19th Amendment was ratified thanks to the Republican Congress.
Republicans have also always advocated for free economies, which provides more wealth and opportunity for women and minorities.
Women in free economies earn nearly ten times the income as women in non-free economies.
It was the Republican Party, not the Democratic Party, that led the charge for a woman’s right to vote.
Republicans supported women’s suffrage since the party was founded in the mid-1800s.
In 1868, the Republican Party Platform included a plank calling for a woman’s right to vote.
In 1920, after 52 years of Democratic Party opposition, the 19th Amendment was ratified thanks to the Republican Congress.
In the final tally, only 59 percent of House Democrats and 41 percent of Senate Democrats supported women’s suffrage.
The new women voters helped elect Republican Warren G. Harding in the 1920 election.
Susan B. Anthony partnered with Republicans, not Democrats, to write the text of what would become the 19th Amendment.
Activist Susan B. Anthony helped the Republicans write the text of what would eventually become the 19th Amendment.
In 1920, after 52 years of Democratic Party opposition, the 19th Amendment was ratified thanks to the Republican Congress.
In the final tally, only 59 percent of House Democrats and 41 percent of Senate Democrats supported women’s suffrage.
The new women voters helped elect Republican Warren G. Harding in the 1920 election.
The Republican Party’s views on economic freedom have encouraged the promotion of civil rights.
Republican views on economic freedom encouraged the promotion of civil rights.
In the 1920s, Republican President Calvin Coolidge declared that the rights of African Americans are “just as sacred as those of any other citizen. It is both a public and private duty to protect those rights.”
By contrast, Democratic President Franklin Roosevelt snubbed famed black sprinter Jesse Owens, a staunch Republican, after he won four gold medals at the 1936 Berlin Olympics.
It was a Republican president, Dwight Eisenhower, who sent the 101st Airborne Division to escort black students into Little Rock’s Central High when Arkansas’ Democratic governor refused to integrate the state’s public schools in 1957.
WATCH: “The Inconvenient Truth About the Democratic Party” – Carol Swain
Inconvenient fact: The Civil Rights Act of 1964 survived a filibuster by Democrats thanks to overwhelming Republican support.
Democrats have tried to remove themselves from their own racist history while propagating the myth that the Republican Party became racist during the 1960s.
The Civil Rights Act of 1960, which outlawed poll taxes and other racist measures meant to keep blacks from voting, was supported by Republicans.
Its follow-up bill, the Civil Rights Act of 1964, survived a filibuster by Democrats thanks to overwhelming Republican support.
Democrats during the 1960s combined liberal economic views with racist views on African Americans.
Related video: “Why Did the Democratic South Become Republican?” – Carol Swain
Related reading: “The Party of Civil Rights” – Kevin D. Williamson
These words are virtually interchangeable—at least, according to most professors, journalists, and celebrities. So, are they right? Let’s take a look at history.
The Republican Party was created in 1854. The first Republican Party platform, adopted at the party’s first national convention in 1856, promised to defeat, quote, “those twin relics of barbarism: polygamy and slavery.”
Those “twin relics” were spreading into the western territories. Republicans feared that as those territories became states, polygamy and slavery might become permanent parts of American life. Polygamy—the marriage of one man to multiple women—devalued women and made them a kind of property. Slavery, of course, did the same to blacks. Literally.
The Democrats were so opposed to the Republicans and their anti-slavery stance that in 1860, just six weeks after the election of the first Republican president, Abraham Lincoln, South Carolina, a state dominated by Democrats, voted to secede from the union. The Civil War that followed was the bloodiest war in US history. It led to the passage, by Republicans, of the 13th Amendment, which freed the slaves the 14th Amendment, which gave them citizenship and the 15th Amendment which gave them the vote.
In 1870, the first black senator and the first black congressman were sworn in—both Republicans. In fact, every black representative in the House until 1935 was a Republican. And every black senator until 1979 was, too. For that matter, the first female member of Congress was a Republican the first Hispanic governor and senator were Republicans. The first Asian senator? You get the idea.
Republicans also kept their pledge to defend women’s rights. In 1862, the Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act was passed by the Republican-controlled Congress to put an end to polygamy.
In 1920, after 52 years of Democratic Party opposition, the 19th Amendment was ratified thanks to the Republican Congress, which pressured Democratic President Woodrow Wilson to drop his opposition to women’s rights. In the final tally, only 59 percent of House Democrats and 41 percent of Senate Democrats supported women’s suffrage. That’s compared to 91 percent of House Republicans and 82 percent of Senate Republicans. There certainly was a “war on women”—and it was led by the Democratic Party.
But while Republicans had won a major battle for women’s rights, the fight for blacks’ civil rights had a long way to go. In the 1920s, Republican President Calvin Coolidge declared that the rights of blacks are “just as sacred as those of any other citizen.”
By contrast, when famed sprinter Jesse Owens, a staunch Republican, won four gold medals at the 1936 Berlin Olympics, he was snubbed by Democratic President Franklin Roosevelt. Roosevelt only invited white Olympians to the White House.
Two decades later, it was a Republican President, Dwight Eisenhower, who sent the 101st Airborne Division to escort black students into Little Rock’s Central High when Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus—a Democrat—refused to honor a court order to integrate the state’s public schools.
The Civil Rights Act of 1960, which outlawed poll taxes and other racist measures meant to keep blacks from voting, was filibustered by 18 Democrats for 125 hours. Not one Republican senator opposed the bill. Its follow-up bill, the Civil Rights Act of 1964, is one of the landmark pieces of legislation in American history. That, too, survived a filibuster by Democrats thanks to overwhelming Republican support.
But, you might be thinking, all that’s in the past. What have Republicans done for women and blacks lately? The answer you’d hear from professors, journalists and celebrities is. “not much.” And this time, they’d be right. They’d be right because the Republican Party treats blacks and women as it treats everyone: as equals.
The Democratic Party never has, and it still doesn’t. Today’s Democrats treat blacks and women as victims who aren’t capable of succeeding on their own.
The truth is, this is just a new kind of contempt.
So, there is a party with a long history of racism and sexism. but it ain't the Republicans.
How the Republican Party Became The Party of Racism
According to Pew Research, 83 percent of the registered voters who identify as Republican are non-Hispanic whites. The Republican Party is whiter than Tilda Swinton riding a polar bear in a snowstorm to a Taylor Swift concert.
Why isn’t anyone laughing? Is this thing on?
And not only is the Grand Ole Party unapologetically white, recently it has been disposing of its dog whistles in favor of bullhorns, becoming more unabashedly racist every day. Aside from its leader excusing a white supremacist murder, calling Mexicans “rapists,” referring to “shithole countries” and settling multiple discrimination lawsuits, there is an abundance of evidence that shows the party’s racism.
Nearly half of the country (49 percent) believes Donald Trump is racist but 86 percent of Republicans say he is not, according to a recent Quinnipiac University poll . The same survey shows that 79 percent of Republicans approve of the way the president handles race. Other data points include:
- 52 percent of voters who supported Donald Trump in the 2016 presidential election believed blacks are “less evolved” than whites, according to researchers at the Kellog School of Management .
- In a 2018 YouGov poll , 59 percent of Republicans agreed: “If blacks would only try harder, they would be as well off as whites.”
- The same YouGov poll revealed that 59 percent of self-identified Republicans believe blacks are treated fairly by the criminal justice system.
- 70 percent of Republicans agreed that increased diversity hurts whites.
- Republican-appointed judges give black defendants longer jail sentences, according to a Harvard study released in May .
- 55 percent of white Republicans agreed “blacks have worse jobs, income and housing than white people” because “most just don’t have the motivation or willpower to pull themselves up out of poverty” according to the Washington Post’s review of data from the University of Chicago’s National Opinion Research Center.
- Nearly twice as many Republicans than Democrats (42 percent versus 24 percent) believe that blacks are lazier than whites, according to the same NORC poll.
According to Republicans, Black People Are Stupid and Lazy
In the latest round of “studies confirming stuff we already knew,” newly released opinion-poll data
Some would argue that having a racist as the head of a party doesn’t necessarily make the entire party racist, which is true. But there is not a single significant poll that shows Republican voters with lower negative feelings about non-white populations versus Democrats or independents. They have become the party of racism.
But how did the party get that way?
Stop me if you’ve heard this one before: The Democrats are the real racists because the GOP is the party of Lincoln and Martin Luther King, Jr. Surely you’ve read the oft-repeated anecdote about how the Republican Party ended slavery and most importantly, fought for the passage of the Civil Rights Act.
They say the best jokes are based in reality. So when accusations of racism enter into any political debate, conservatives invariably regurgitate those previously-mentioned bullet points from the recurring, well-rehearsed Republican comedy routine.
What they fail to mention, however, is that the party to which they refer to no longer exists. The only thing that remains of the original Republican P arty is the name. And how the Grand Ole Party transformed itself from the party of Lincoln into the current version—a white, Southern party rife with racial resentment—has become a forgotten tale that takes advantage of America’s lack of historical knowledge and abundance of short-term memory when it comes to race.
It is true that the Republican P arty was founded on the principles of anti-slavery. They were so in favor of ending America’s peculiar institution that they were often called “Black Republicans” as a slur. They also believed in welcoming immigrants with open arms, elected the first woman to Congress and supported black suffrage.
In fact, most blacks identified with the GOP from Reconstruction until the election of Franklin Roosevelt. Until Carol Mosely Braun’s election in 1992, every African American who served in the United States Senate belonged to the Republican P arty. Twenty-one black men served in the House of Representatives before a black Democrat was elected. It was the party of progressive values.
The Democratic Party, on the other hand, was the party of the South. It was the party of social conservatism. It wanted to preserve slavery and segregation. It opposed the Civil Rights Act and the Voting Rights Act. It was the party of states rights, small government and Jim Crow.
The Democrats wouldn’t even allow blacks at the convention until 1924 , mostly to appease the Southern base of the party still butthurt about losing the Civil War (they still haven’t gotten over that one). After the Civil War, the Democrats in the “Solid South” blamed Republicans for ending slavery and refused to vote for them.
That something was racism.
After Democratic President Harry Truman’s desegregated the Army and the Democratic Party said they would support laws that ended Jim Crow, 35 delegates from the Deep South walked out of the 1948 Democratic National Convention and formed the Dixiecrat Party. They elected Strom Thurmond as their leader, who would never identify as a Democrat again.
In 1957, Republican President Dwight Eisenhower sent f ederal troops into Arkansas to desegregate Little Rock Central High School. In 1963, John F. Kennedy, a Democrat, broke with the party ideology and used Eisenhower’s playbook to federalize the Alabama National Guard and force the desegregation at the University of Alabama.
Then came the breaking point that would basically change the party affiliation of Southern voters. Shortly before the election of 1964, Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act.
The “Solid South” would never vote for a Democrat p resident again.
If Ku Klux Klan members started wearing Black Lives Matter T-shirts, would that automatically make them a civil rights organization? Suppose Donald Trump changed his name to Malcolm X. Would he immediately become a human rights activist?
That’s what happened to the Republican P arty.
Republicans would like you to believe that Republicans supported the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Democrats opposed it, which is only partially true. To understand the change in both parties’ ideology, all one has to do is count the votes .
- There were 94 Southern Democrats in the House of Representatives. 7 voted for the bill.
- There were 10 Southern Republicans in the House of Representatives. Zero voted for the bill.
- Northern house Democrats voted in favor of the bill 145-9
- Northern House Republicans favored the bill 138-24
- Of the 21 Southern Senators (Democrat or Republican), only 1 voted in favor of the Civil Rights Act (A Texas Democrat).
As you can see, it wasn’t the Democrats who opposed the Civil Rights Act and the Republicans who favored it. Everyone supported the Civil Rights Act except the South. It was Southern politicians from both parties who voted against the legislation. The reason Republicans say they supported the bill is that there weren’t very many Southern Republicans in Congress in 1964.
The Civil Rights Act was signed on July 2, 1964. In the presidential elections that year, 94 percent of nonwhite voters voted for Johnson boosting him to a win over Barry Goldwater.
But Goldwater, a Republican, managed to win five Southern states in that election, which was unheard of for a Republican. How did Goldwater do that? He won those states by opposing the Civil Rights Act.
After the bill passed, Strom Thurmond left the Democratic P arty, as did many Southern w hites. In 1968, he teamed up with Richard Nixon, the 1968 Republican p residential candidate, and convinced Nixon that a Republican could win the South if he was willing to dog-whistle racism to the Southern voters.
Along with H.R. Haldeman, they developed the “ Southern Strategy ,” by emphasizing to white voters in the South that: “[T]he whole problem is really the blacks. The key is to devise a system that recognized this while not appearing to.”
Nixon won the 1968 election by carrying seven southern states, a remarkable feat for a Republican. In the 1972 election, he doubled down on the racist rhetoric and won every single state in the South.
Since that election, no Democratic candidate has won a majority of the old Confederate states formerly known as the “Solid South.” The old Confederate states fused into a Republican voting block few Democrats have been able to penetrate.
In 1981, Lee Atwater, the political campaign architect who refined the Southern Strategy for Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush, described the Republican party’s winning template:
You start out in 1954 by saying, “Nigger, nigger, nigger.” By 1968, you can’t say “nigger”—that hurts you, backfires. So you say stuff like, uh, forced busing, states’ rights, and all that stuff, and you’re getting so abstract. Now, you’re talking about cutting taxes, and all these things you’re talking about are totally economic things and a byproduct of them is, blacks get hurt worse than whites. . “We want to cut this,” is much more abstract than even the busing thing, uh, and a hell of a lot more abstract than “Nigger, nigger.”
Not only did the pro-segregation, anti-black Southerners switch sides, but they brought their political ideology with them. The Democratic P arty is now the progressive party that welcomes immigrants and the Republican P arty has become the party of small government, law and order and conservatism. In 2016, 73 percent of white voters in the South voted Republican.
It is now the party of the alt-right. It is the party of the Willie Horton ad and birtherism. It is the party of Donald Trump, the “Muslim ban,” the border wall, David Duke and all the other white supremacists running for election on the Republican ticket in the midterm elections.
Republican Party Platform
The Republican Party was formed in 1854, the same year the Missouri Compromise was repealed under the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Two years later, during the election of 1856, the Republicans drafted their first presidential party platform, declaring the right and the duty of Congress “to prohibit in the territories those twin relics of barbarism—polygamy and slavery.” (Polygamy was a reference to the Mormons in the Utah territory, created in 1850 as part of the laws that made up the Compromise of 1850.) The Republican candidate for president that year, John C. Fremont (1813–1890), narrowly lost to James Buchanan (1791–1868), the Democratic candidate. In 1860, the Republicans drafted a party platform dominated by the slavery issue and, after several ballots, nominated Abraham Lincoln for president and Hannibal Hamlin of Maine for vice president.
Source: Republican Party Platform of 1860, online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project, https://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/node/273296.
Resolved that we, the delegated representatives of the Republican electors of the United States, in convention assembled, in discharge of the duty we owe to our constituents and our country, unite in the following declarations:
First. That the history of the nation during the last four years has fully established the propriety and necessity of the organization and perpetuation of the Republican party, and that the causes which called it into existence are permanent in their nature, and now more than ever before demand its peaceful and constitutional triumph.
Second. That the maintenance of the principles promulgated in the Declaration of Independence and embodied in the federal Constitution, “That all men are created equal that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness that to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed,” is essential to the preservation of our Republican institutions and that the federal Constitution, the rights of the states, and the Union of the states, must and shall be preserved.
Third. That to the Union of the states this nation owes its unprecedented increase in population its surprising development of material resources its rapid augmentation of wealth its happiness at home and its honor abroad and we hold in abhorrence all schemes for disunion, come from whatever source they may and we congratulate the country that no Republican member of Congress has uttered or countenanced the threats of disunion so often made by Democratic members, without rebuke and with applause from their political associates and we denounce those threats of disunion, in case of a popular overthrow of their ascendency, as denying the vital principles of a free government, and as an avowal of contemplated treason, which it is the imperative duty of an indignant people sternly to rebuke and forever silence.
Fourth. That the maintenance inviolate of the rights of the states, and especially the right of each state, to order and control its own domestic institutions according to its own judgment exclusively, is essential to that balance of power on which the perfection and endurance of our political fabric depends, and we denounce the lawless invasion by armed force of the soil of any state or territory, no matter under what pretext, as among the gravest of crimes.
Fifth. That the present Democratic Administration has far exceeded our worst apprehension in its measureless subserviency to the exactions of a sectional interest, as is especially evident in its desperate exertions to force the infamous Lecompton Constitution upon the protesting people of Kansas in construing the personal relation between master and servant to involve an unqualified property in persons in its attempted enforcement everywhere, on land and sea, through the intervention of Congress and of the federal courts, of the extreme pretensions of a purely local interest, and in its general and unvarying abuse of the power entrusted to it by a confiding people.
Sixth. That the people justly view with alarm the reckless extravagance which pervades every department of the federal government that a return to rigid economy and accountability is indispensable to arrest the systematic plunder of the public treasury by favored partisans while the recent startling developments of frauds and corruptions at the federal metropolis, show that an entire change of administration is imperatively demanded.
Seventh. That the new dogma that the Constitution of its own force carries slavery into any or all of the territories of the United States, is a dangerous political heresy, at variance with the explicit provisions of that instrument itself, with cotemporaneous exposition, and with legislative and judicial precedent, is revolutionary in its tendency and subversive of the peace and harmony of the country.
Eighth. That the normal condition of all the territory of the United States is that of freedom that as our Republican fathers, when they had abolished slavery in all our national territory, ordained that no “person should be deprived of life, liberty or property, without due process of law,” it becomes our duty, by legislation, whenever such legislation is necessary, to maintain this provision of the Constitution against all attempts to violate it and we deny the authority of Congress, of a territorial legislature, or of any individuals, to give legal existence to slavery in any territory of the United States.
Ninth. That we brand the recent reopening of the African slave trade, under the cover of our national flag, aided by perversions of judicial power, as a crime against humanity, and a burning shame to our country and age, and we call upon Congress to take prompt and efficient measures for the total and final suppression of that execrable traffic.
Tenth. That in the recent vetoes by the federal governors of the acts of the legislatures of Kansas and Nebraska, prohibiting slavery in those territories, we find a practical illustration of the boasted Democratic principle of non-intervention and popular sovereignty, embodied in the Kansas-Nebraska bill, and a demonstration of the deception and fraud involved therein.
Eleventh. That Kansas should of right be immediately admitted as a state, under the Constitution recently formed and adopted by her people, and accepted by the House of Representatives.
Twelfth. That while providing revenue for the support of the general government by duties upon imports, sound policy requires such an adjustment of these imposts as to encourage the development of the industrial interests of the whole country, and we commend that policy of national exchanges which secures to the workingmen liberal wages, to agriculture remunerating prices, to mechanics and manufacturers an adequate reward for their skill, labor and enterprise, and to the nation commercial prosperity and independence.
Thirteenth. That we protest against any sale or alienation to others of the public lands held by actual settlers, and against any view of the free homestead policy which regards the settlers as paupers or suppliants for public bounty, and we demand the passage by Congress of the complete and satisfactory homestead measure which has already passed the House.
Fourteenth. That the Republican party is opposed to any change in our naturalization laws, or any state legislation by which the rights of citizenship hitherto accorded by emigrants from foreign lands shall be abridged or impaired and in favor of giving a full and efficient protection to the rights of all classes of citizens, whether native or naturalized, both at home and abroad.
Fifteenth. That appropriation by Congress for river and harbor improvements of a national character, required for the accommodation and security of an existing commerce, are authorized by the Constitution and justified by the obligation of government to protect the lives and property of its citizens.
Sixteenth. That a railroad to the Pacific Ocean is imperatively demanded by the interests of the whole country that the federal government ought to render immediate and efficient aid in its construction and that, as preliminary thereto, a daily overland mail should be promptly established.
Seventeenth. Finally, having thus set forth our distinctive principles and views, we invite the cooperation of all citizens, however differing on other questions who substantially agree with us in their affirmance and support.
History of the Republican Party
The Republican Party was the result of a movement against the Kansas Nebraska Act, which extended slavery further across the United States. The first meeting against this Act, and where the term ‘Republican’ was suggested as the name for the new party, was conducted in Ripon, Wisconsin, on March 20, 1854. From thereon in, the Republican Party rapidly rose on the back of its radical beliefs and anti-slavery position.
The American Midwest saw the most number of Republican Party tickets, followed by the Eastern states. Within six years, every Northern state had a Republican governor. The South saw very few efforts in organizing the Republican Party, apart from a few areas that were close to the Free states.
The party came into the foray as a major political force with the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860. The American Civil War soon followed as pro-slavery southern Democrats objected to the anti-slavery views of Lincoln. In the years during and after the Civil War, the Republican Party headed by Lincoln went on to pass a number of laws and make significant constitutional amendments that banned slavery and attempted to give more rights to the blacks. This was also the era of the Radical Republicans, a faction of the Republican Party that demanded harsh measures against the Confederates and slavery. Lincoln was able to hold them off, but this changed with his death and the arrival of Andrew Johnson as President.
Although Johnson seemed favorable to the Radicals at first, he soon took the path of moderation and formed an alliance between Democrats and Republicans. By 1866, the Radical Republicans won a sweeping victory and took over the Reconstruction era, which included a number of key laws being passed and the impeachment of Johnson.
Two years later, Ulysses S. Grant became President and the Congress was under the control of the Radicals. This era was marked by aggressive attempts by the party to build their base in the South with the help of the United States Army detachments. There were clashes between local Republican groups, called Union Leagues, and Ku Klux Klan members, leading to the death of thousands.
For the next century or so, the South continued to be dominated by Democrats. In fact, the entire South was called the Solid South in reference to the strength of the Democratic Party in the region. In contrast, the Republican Party only controlled small parts of the Appalachian Mountains and occasionally competed for office in Border States. The status quo, however, changed in 1948 when the Democrats alienated its Southern base in two ways.
The first was the adoption of civil rights by the Democratic National Convention and the second was the signing of the Executive Order 9981, signifying the racial integration of the U.S. armed forces. The Deep South formed a regional party with J. Strom Thurmond at the head, but the outer South remained with the Democrats and President Truman.
The Civil Rights movement, in fact, was the turning point for the Democrats and the Republican Party. As hardcore Democratic governors like Lester Maddox (Georgia), George Wallace (Alabama), and Ross Barnett (Mississippi) resisted integration in their states, an increasing number of Democrats began to go against their policies of racial separation and embraced integration. The Civil Rights Acts was passed in 1964 and 1965, freeing the South from centuries-old barriers that prevented them from joining the Republican Party and liberating them from old racial issues. Nevertheless, the South did not immediately transition to the Republican Party. It took decades, starting from voting Republican during presidential elections and moving on to voting for Republican senators for seats in the Congress.
After 1980, the Republican Party began to attract a majority of the Evangelical Christians, who had been political neutral until then. This was due to the increasingly liberal stance of the Democratic Party, especially on controversial issues like abortion. As more conservatives went from the Democrats to the Republics, the Republican Party became more conservative and liberal Republicans joined the Democratic Party.
Eisenhower & Nixon
Dwight Eisenhower, an internationalist allied with the Dewey wing, challenged Taft in 1952 on foreign policy issues. The two men were not far apart on domestic issues. Eisenhower's victory broke a 20 year Democratic lock on the White House. Eisenhower did not try to roll back the New Deal, but he did expand the Social Security system and built the Interstate Highway system.
The conservatives in 1964 made a comeback under the leadership of Barry Goldwater who defeated Nelson Rockefeller as the Republican candidate in the 1964 presidential convention. Goldwater was strongly opposed to the New Deal and the United Nations, but he rejected isolationism and containment, calling for an aggressive anti-Communist foreign policy.
In 1968, using growing voter disgust at Johnson's Great Society programs, Civil Rights, urban violence, and U.S. Supreme Court decisions that ended school prayer, liberalized pornography laws, and restricted police action, and the Vietnam War Richard Nixon played to a vast section of American middle-class voters he called the Silent Majority. He won the 1968 Presidential election, but it was another close race.
Any long-term voter movement toward the GOP was interrupted by the Watergate Scandal, which forced Nixon to resign in 1974 under threat of impeachment. Gerald Ford succeeded Nixon and gave him a full pardon--much to the disappointment of most Americans and thereby giving the Democrats a powerful issue they used to sweep the 1974 off-year elections. Ford never fully recovered from the political fallout of this pardon (even within his own party), and in 1976 he barely defeated Ronald Reagan for the nomination. The taint of Watergate and the nation's economic difficulties contributed to the election of Democrat Jimmy Carter in 1976, running as a Washington outsider.
Strength of Parties 1977
How the Two Parties Stood after the 1976 Election:
|Party ID (Gallup)||22%||47%||31%|
|% House popular vote nationally||42%||56%||2%|
|in the East||41%||57%||2%|
|in the South||37%||62%||2%|
|in the Midwest||47%||52%||1%|
|in the West||43%||55%||2%|
|State legislature control||18||80||1 *|
|in the East||5||13||0|
|in the South||0||32||0|
|in the Midwest||5||17||1 *|
|in the West||8||18||0|
|States' one party control |
of legislature and governorship
*The unicameral Nebraska legislature, in fact controlled by the Republicans, is technically nonpartisan.
Source: Everett Carll Ladd Jr. Where Have All the Voters Gone? The Fracturing of America's Political Parties (1978) p.6
Summary of Platform Shifting – An Issues-by-Issue Breakdown
The platform switching, evidenced in the above sections, can be explained a few ways. Below we summarize it by contrasting key platforms of each major party in the First to Third Party Systems with the Fifth Party systems onward:
- Federalists/Whigs/Third Party Republicans: Strict on immigration, pro-tradition, anti-slavery, no need to separate church and state or offer a bill of rights, pro-globalization, and trade, a central bank, big government, big business, pro-foreign-military-policy. Regulated economy based on the finance industry and global economy.
- Anti-Federalists/Democratic-Republicans/Third Party Democrats: Pro-immigration, anti-tradition, separate church and state, want bill of rights, limited government, no central bank, pro states’ rights (even if it means slavery), pro-farmer, and anti-war. An unregulated economy based on production at home and farming.
- Modern Post 64′ Democrats: Pro-immigration, anti-segregation, separation of church and state, want bill of rights (today a second bill of rights for education and healthcare for example), big government, pro central bank, pro subsidization (be it to farmer or corporation), and anti-war in sentiment (albeit generally pro-defense). Regulated economy based on finance industry and global economy.
- Modern Post 64′ Republicans: Strict on immigration, pro-tradition, no need to separate church and state or offer bill of rights, pro-farmer and certain big businesses, small government, pro-south, and pro-strong military. Unregulated economy based on production at home and farming.
As you can see the Third Party Republicans essentially become Post 64′ Fifth Party Democrats, and the Third Party Democrats essentially become Post 64′ Fifth Party Republicans on many (not all) key issues.
It is worth more than a note to mention that fitting all America’s factions into two parties will always cause some splitting on issues. For instance, some modern Democrats favor private industry, are laissez faire and pro-foreign-military-policy, and some Republicans favor trade-based big business and are pro-foreign-military-policy. This pro-private industry and globalization is largely what the terms neocon and neoliberal denote.   In other cases environment or religion is the primary issue for a voter, and this can result in third parties (like the Green party for instance).
With the above said, ignoring minor factions, today we can break down the current major American political factions into a few basic groups (see a more detailed model here):
- Neoliberal Democrats: Big business Democrats who favor the private market as a means to achieve social justice, tend to favor big government.
- Populist Social-Liberal Democrats: Favor a less privatized version of social liberalism, social justice and environmental issues take precedence over free-market economics and big business.
- Neocon Republicans: Big business Republicans who favor the private market and traditional conservative values and aspects of free-market libertarian ideology.
- Libertarian Republicans: Limited government classical liberals who tend to organize around right-wing ideology. As noted in the first section, sometimes a classical liberal position is seen as socially conservative today.
- Modern Conservative Republicans: Social and classical conservatives who are voting only on modern conservative issues of religion, immigration, gun laws, etc.
Exactly what party has taken which stance on each issue has changed over time, but as displayed above and detailed below, some common threads can be traced throughout history to clearly illustrate “switching.” Of course, the exact changes that occurred are complex, and involve many third parties.
We can’t always trace a neat line between issues or major parties, but the underlying arguments of “how authoritative should government be?” and “should we sacrifice individual liberty for collective liberty?” will always remain the same. This is what ultimately allows us to spot the factions and platform switching in any era so we can compare that to today.
If we make the above summary into one simple chart, it might look something like this:
A left-right spectrum showing how Lincoln and Reagan are both Republicans, and comparing that to the stances of Hamilton and Jefferson.
“I have just one purpose … and that is to build up a strong progressive Republican Party in this country. If the right wing wants a fight, they are going to get it … before I end up, either this Republican Party will reflect progressivism, or I won’t be with them anymore.”  – Eisenhower on being a moderate Republican and “progressive” friend to the New Deal Coalition, a stance that harkens back to Lincoln, but isn’t found again after Republicans like Nixon or Reagan.
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Democratic-Republican Party, originally (1792–98) Republican Party, first opposition political party in the United States. Organized in 1792 as the Republican Party, its members held power nationally between 1801 and 1825. It was the direct antecedent of the present Democratic Party.
During the two administrations of Pres. George Washington (1789–97), many former Anti-Federalists—who had resisted adoption of the new federal Constitution (1787)—began to unite in opposition to the fiscal program of Alexander Hamilton, secretary of the treasury. After Hamilton and other proponents of a strong central government and a loose interpretation of the Constitution formed the Federalist Party in 1791, those who favoured states’ rights and a strict interpretation of the Constitution rallied under the leadership of Thomas Jefferson, who had served as Washington’s first secretary of state. Jefferson’s supporters, deeply influenced by the ideals of the French Revolution (1789), first adopted the name Republican to emphasize their antimonarchical views. The Republicans contended that the Federalists harboured aristocratic attitudes and that their policies placed too much power in the central government and tended to benefit the affluent at the expense of the common man. Although the Federalists soon branded Jefferson’s followers “Democratic-Republicans,” attempting to link them with the excesses of the French Revolution, the Republicans officially adopted the derisive label in 1798. The Republican coalition supported France in the European war that broke out in 1792, while the Federalists supported Britain (see French revolutionary and Napoleonic wars). The Republicans’ opposition to Britain unified the faction through the 1790s and inspired them to fight against the Federalist-sponsored Jay Treaty (1794) and the Alien and Sedition Acts (1798).
Notwithstanding the party’s antielitist foundations, the first three Democratic-Republican presidents—Jefferson (1801–09), James Madison (1809–17), and James Monroe (1817–25)—were all wealthy, aristocratic Southern planters, though all three shared the same liberal political philosophy. Jefferson narrowly defeated the Federalist John Adams in the election of 1800 his victory demonstrated that power could be transferred peacefully between parties under the Constitution. Once in office, the Democratic-Republicans attempted to scale back Federalist programs but actually overturned few of the institutions they had criticized (e.g., the Bank of the United States was retained until its charter expired in 1811). Nevertheless, Jefferson made a genuine effort to make his administration appear more democratic and egalitarian: he walked to the Capitol for his inauguration rather than ride in a coach-and-six, and he sent his annual message to Congress by messenger, rather than reading it personally. Federal excises were repealed, the national debt was retired, and the size of the armed forces was greatly reduced. However, the demands of foreign relations (such as the Louisiana Purchase in 1803) often forced Jefferson and his successors into a nationalistic stance reminiscent of the Federalists.
In the 20 years after 1808 the party existed less as a united political group than as a loose coalition of personal and sectional factions. The fissures in the party were fully exposed by the election of 1824, when the leaders of the two major factions, Andrew Jackson and John Quincy Adams, were both nominated for president. Meanwhile, William H. Crawford was nominated by the party’s congressional caucus, and Henry Clay, another Democratic-Republican, was nominated by the Kentucky and Tennessee legislatures. Jackson carried the popular vote and a plurality in the electoral college, but because no candidate received a majority of the electoral vote, the presidency was decided by the House of Representatives. Clay, the speaker of the House of Representatives, finished fourth and was thus ineligible for consideration he subsequently threw his support to Adams, who was elected president and promptly appointed Clay secretary of state. Following the election, the Democratic-Republicans split into two groups: the National Republicans, who became the nucleus of the Whig Party in the 1830s, were led by Adams and Clay, while the Democratic-Republicans were organized by Martin Van Buren, the future eighth president (1837–41), and led by Jackson. The Democratic-Republicans comprised diverse elements that emphasized local and humanitarian concerns, states’ rights, agrarian interests, and democratic procedures. During Jackson’s presidency (1829–37) they dropped the Republican label and called themselves simply Democrats or Jacksonian Democrats. The name Democratic Party was formally adopted in 1844.