Edward Stanley, 15th Earl of Derby

Edward Stanley, 15th Earl of Derby


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Edward Stanley, eldest son of the 14th Earl of Derby, was born on the 21st July 1826. He was educated at Rugby School and Trinity College, Cambridge. In 1848 Stanley went in a tour of the West Indies, America and Canada. While he was away he was elected as the Conservative MP for King's Lynn. As a result of his visit to the West Indies, Edward Stanley published a pamphlet putting forward the planters' case.

In 1852 the Earl of Derby became Prime Minister. He appointed his son as under secretary for foreign affairs. Stanley lost this post when the Earl of Aberdeen became the new Prime Minister later on that year. When Lord Palmerston became Prime Minister of the new Liberal government in 1855 he offered Stanley the post of colonial secretary. However, his father, who was still leader of the Conservatives, advised him to remain on the opposition benches.

The Earl of Derby became Prime Minister again in February 1858. He appointed his son as Colonial Secretary, and on the resignation of Lord Ellenborough, he became President of the Board of Trade. He held the post until Lord Palmerston returned as Prime Minister in 1859.

In the early 1860s Stanley was on the liberal wing of the Conservative Party. He agreed with some aspects of parliamentary reform suggested by the government of Lord John Russell. The speech that he made on Russell's proposed parliamentary reform bill in 1866 was considered by some of his colleagues as the best one he made in the House of Commons.

In 1866 the Earl of Derby became Prime Minister for a third time. Once again Stanley joined the Cabinet, this time as Foreign Secretary. Benjamin Disraeli became the new leader of Hose of Commons. Disraeli pointed out that although attempts by Lord John Russell and William Gladstone to extend the franchise had failed, he believed that if they returned to power, they would certainly try again. Disraeli argued that the Conservatives were in danger of being seen as an anti-reform party. In 1867 Disraeli proposed a new Reform Act. Although some members of the Cabinet such as Lord Cranborne (later the Marquis of Salisbury) resigned in protest against this extension of democracy, the Earl of Derby and Edward Stanley supported the measure.

In the House of Commons, Disraeli's proposals were supported by William Gladstone and his followers and the measure was passed. The 1867 Reform Act gave the vote to every male adult householder living in a borough constituency. Male lodgers paying £10 for unfurnished rooms were also granted the vote. This gave the vote to about 1,500,000 men.

In 1868 Earl of Derby resigned and Benjamin Disraeli became the new Prime Minister. However, in the general election that followed, William Gladstone and the Liberals were returned to power with a majority of 170 and Stanley returned to the opposition benches. In 1869 Stanley's father died and he succeeded him as the 15th Earl of Derby.

Benjamin Disraeli became Prime Minister in February 1874 and the Earl of Derby became Foreign Secretary. Derby main objective during this period was to prevent war in the Balkans. This policy ended in failure when Russia invaded Turkey in April 1877. The Cabinet was divided on what Britain should do. Derby believed that Britain should keep out of the war and when Disraeli made the decision to support Turkey, he resigned from the government. Lord Derby also opposed the acquisition of Cyprus and the Afghan War in 1879.

Unable to support the Conservative government's foreign policy, the Earl of Derby decided in March 1880 to join the Liberals. This move surprised many people as Derby was considered to be the most likely person to replace Benjamin Disraeli as leader of the Conservatives and therefore the future Prime Minister. William Gladstone was glad to have Derby in his party and asked him to be leader of the Liberals in the House of Lords. When Gladstone became Prime Minister in 1882 he appointed Derby as his Colonial Secretary. He held the post until the Marquis of Salisbury replaced Gladstone as Prime Minister in 1885.

The Earl of Derby disagreed with Gladstone's policy of Irish Home Rule and in 1886 joined the new Liberal Unionist Party. He led this party in the House of Lords until he retired in 1889.

Edward Stanley, 15th Earl of Derby, died on 21st April, 1893.


Edward Stanley, 15. jarl af Derby - Edward Stanley, 15th Earl of Derby

Edward Henry Stanley, 15. jarl af Derby , KG , PC , FRS (21. juli 1826 - 21. april 1893 kendt som Lord Stanley fra 1851 til 1869) var en britisk statsmand. Han fungerede som statssekretær for udenrigsanliggender to gange fra 1866 til 1868 og fra 1874 til 1878 og også to gange som kolonisekretær i 1858 og fra 1882 til 1885.


Bible Encyclopedias

HENRY STANLEY, 15th earl of Derby (1826-1893), eldest son of the 14th earl, was educated at Rugby and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he took a high degree and became a member of the society known as the Apostles. In March 1848 he unsuccessfully contested the borough of Lancaster, and then made a long tour in the West Indies, Canada and the United States. During his absence he was elected member for King's Lynn, which he represented till October 1869, when he succeeded to the peerage. He took his place, as a matter of course, among the Conservatives, and delivered his maiden speech in May 1850 on the sugar duties. Just before, he had made a very brief tour in Jamaica and South America. In 1852 he went to India, and while travelling in that country he was appointed under-secretary for foreign affairs in his father's first administration. From the outset of his career he was known to be a most Liberal Conservative, and in 1855 Lord Palmerston offered him the post of colonial secretary. He was much tempted by the proposal, and hurried down to Knowsley to consult his father, who called out when he entered the room, " Hallo, Stanley ! what'brings you here ? - Has Dizzy cut his throat, or are you going to be married ? " When the object of his sudden appearance had been explained, the Conservative chief received the courteous suggestion of the prime minister with anything but favour, and the offer was declined. In his father's second administration Lord Stanley held, at first, the office of secretary for the colonies, but became president of the Board of Control on the resignation of Lord Ellenborough. He had the charge of the India Bill of 1858 in the House of Commons, became the first secretary of state for India, and left behind him in the India Office an excellent reputation as a man of business. After the revolution in Greece and the disappearance of King Otho, the people most earnestly desired to have Queen Victoria's second son, Prince Alfred, for their king. He declined the honour, and they then took up the idea that the next best thing they could do would be to elect some great and wealthy English noble, not concealing the hope that although they might have to offer him a Civil List he would decline to receive it. Lord Stanley was the prime favourite as an occupant of this bed of thorns, and it has been said that he was actually offered the crown. That, however, is not true the offer was never formally made. After the fall of the Russell government in 1866 he became foreign secretary in his father's third administration. He compared his conduct in that great post to that of a man floating down a river and fending off from his vessel, as well as he could, the various obstacles it encountered. He thought that that should be the normal attitude of an English foreign minister, and probably under the circumstances of the years 1866-1868 it was the right one. He arranged the collective guarantee of the neutrality of Luxemburg in 1867, negotiated a convention about the " Alabama," which, however, was not ratified, and most wisely refused to take any part in the Cretan troubles. In 1874 he again became foreign secretary in Disraeli's government. He acquiesced in the purchase of the Suez Canal shares, a measure then considered dangerous by many people, but ultimately most successful he accepted the Andrassy Note, but declined to accede to the Berlin Memorandum. His part in the later phases of the Russo-Turkish struggle has never been fully explained, for with equal wisdom and generosity he declined to gratify public curiosity at the cost of some of his colleagues. A later generation will know better than his contemporaries what were the precise developments of policy which obliged him to resign. He kept himself ready to explain in the House of Lords the course he had taken if those whom he had left challenged him to do so, but from that course they consistently:"refrained. Already in October 1879 it was clear enough that he had thrown in his lot with the Liberal party, but it was not till March 1880 that he publicly announced this change of allegiance. He did not at first take office in the second Gladstone government, but became secretary for the colonies in December 1882, holding this position till the fall of that government in the summer of 1885. In 1886 the old Liberal party was run on the rocks and went to pieces. Lord Derby became a Liberal Unionist, and took an active part in the general management of that party, leading it in the House of Lords till 1891, when Lord Hartington became duke of Devonshire. In 1892 he presided over the Labour Commission, but his health never recovered an attack of influenza which he had in 1891, and he died at Knowsley on the 21st of April 1893.

During a great part of Lord Derby's life he was deflected from his natural course by the accident of his position as the son of the leading Conservative statesman of the day. From first to last he was at heart a moderate Liberal. After making allowance, however, for this deflecting agency, it must be admitted that in the highest quality of the statesman, " aptness to be right," he was surpassed by none of his contemporaries, or - if by anybody - by Sir George Cornewall Lewis alone. He would have been more at home in a state of things which did not demand from its leading statesman great popular power he had none of those " isms " and " prisms of fancy " which stood in such good stead some of his rivals. He had another defect besides the want of popular power. He was so anxious to arrive at right conclusions that he sometimes turned and turned and turned a subject over till the time for action had passed. One of his best lieutenants said of him in a moment of impatience: " Lord Derby is like the God of Hegel: ` Er setzt sich, er verneint sich, er verneint seine Negation.' " His knowledge, acquired both from books and by the ear, was immense, and he took every opportunity of increasing it. He retained his old university habit of taking long walks with a congenial companion, even in London, and although he cared but little for what is commonly known as society - the society of crowded rooms and fragments of sentences - he very much liked conversation. During the many years in which he was a member of " The Club " he was one of its most assiduous frequenters, and his loss was acknowledged by a formal resolution. His talk was generally grave, but every now and then was lit up by dry humour. The late Lord Arthur Russell once said to him, after he had been buying some property in southern England: " So you still believe in land, Lord Derby." " Hang it," he replied, " a fellow must believe in something! " He did an immense deal of work outside politics. He was lord rector of the University of Glasgow from 1868 to 1871, and later held the same office in that of Edinburgh. From 1875 to 1893 he was president of the Royal Literary Fund, and attended most closely to his duties then. He succeeded Lord Granville as chancellor of the University of London in 1891, and remained in that position till his death. He lived much in Lancashire, managed his enormous estates with great skill, and did a great amount of work as a local magnate. He married in 1870 Maria Catharine, daughter of the 5th earl de la Warr, and widow of the 2nd marquess of Salisbury.

The earl left no children and he was succeeded as 16th earl by his brother Frederick Arthur Stanley (1841-1908), who had been made a peer as Baron Stanley of Preston in 1886. He was secretary of state for war and for the colonies and president of the board of trade and was governor-general of Canada from 1888 to 1893. He died on the 1 4 th of June 1908, when his eldest son, Edward George Villiers Stanley, became earl of Derby. As Lord Stanley the latter had been member of parliament for the West Houghton division of Lancashire from 1892 to 1906 he was financial secretary to the War Office from 1900 to 1903, and postmaster-general from 1903 to 1905.

The best account of the 15th Lord Derby is that which was prefixed by W. E. H. Lecky, who knew him very intimately, to the edition of his speeches outside parliament, published in 1894. (M. G. D.)


Edward Stanley, 15th Earl of Derby

Edward Henry Stanley, 15th Earl of Derby, KG, PC (21 July 1826 – 21 April 1893) was a British statesman whose father served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.

He was born to Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby and Emma Caroline Bootle-Wilbraham, daughter of Edward Bootle-Wilbraham, 1st Baron Skelmersdale, and was the older brother of Frederick Arthur Stanley, 16th Earl of Derby. The Stanleys were one of the richest landowning families in England. Lord Stanley, as he was styled before acceding to the earldom, was educated at Rugby and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he took a high degree and became a member of the society known as the Apostles. In March 1848 he unsuccessfully contested the borough of Lancaster, and then made a long tour in the West Indies, Canada and the United States. During his absence he was elected member for King's Lynn, which he represented till October 1869, when he succeeded to the peerage. He took his place, as a matter of course, among the Conservatives, and delivered his maiden speech in May 1850 on the sugar duties. Just before, he had made a very brief tour in Jamaica and South America. In 1852 he went to India, and while travelling in that country he was appointed under-secretary for foreign affairs in his father's first administration.

From the outset of his career he was known to be a most Liberal Conservative, and in 1855 Lord Palmerston offered him the post of Secretary of State for the Colonies. He was much tempted by the proposal, and hurried down to Knowsley to consult his father, who called out when he entered the room, "Halo, Stanley! what brings you here? — Has Dizzy cut his throat, or are you going to be married?" When the object of his sudden appearance had been explained, the Conservative chief received the courteous suggestion of the prime minister with anything but favour, and the offer was declined.

In his father's second administration Lord Stanley held, at first, the office of Secretary of State for the Colonies (1858), but became President of the Board of Control on the resignation of Lord Ellenborough. He had the charge of the India Bill of 1858 in the House of Commons, became the first Secretary of State for India, and left behind him in the India Office an excellent reputation as a man of business.

After the revolution in Greece and the disappearance of King Otto, the people most earnestly desired to have Queen Victoria's second son, Prince Alfred, for their king. He declined the honour, and they then took up the idea that the next best thing they could do would be to elect some great and wealthy English noble, not concealing the hope that although they might have to offer him a Civil List he would decline to receive it. Lord Stanley was the prime favourite as an occupant of this bed of thorns, and it has been said that he was actually offered the crown. That, however, is not true the offer was never formally made.

After the fall of the Russell government in 1866 he became Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs in his father's third administration. He compared his conduct in that great post to that of a man floating down a river and fending off from his vessel, as well as he could, the various obstacles it encountered. He thought that that should be the normal attitude of an English foreign minister, and probably in the circumstances of the years 1866-1868 it was the right one. He arranged the collective guarantee of the neutrality of Luxembourg in 1867, negotiated a convention about the Alabama, which, however, was not ratified, and most wisely refused to take any part in the Cretan troubles. In 1874 he again became Foreign Secretary in Disraeli's government. He acquiesced in the purchase of the Suez Canal shares, a measure then considered dangerous by many people, but ultimately most successful he accepted the Andrassy Note, but declined to accede to the Berlin Memorandum. His part in the later phases of the Russo-Turkish struggle has never been fully explained, for with equal wisdom and generosity he declined to gratify public curiosity at the cost of some of his colleagues. A later generation will know better than his contemporaries what were the precise developments of policy which obliged him to resign. He kept himself ready to explain in the House of Lords the course he had taken if those whom he had left challenged him to do so, but from that course they consistently refrained. Already in October 1879 it was clear enough that he had thrown in his lot with the Liberal Party, but it was not till March 1880 that he publicly announced this change of allegiance. He did not at first take office in. the second Gladstone government, but became Colonial Secretary in December 1882, holding this position till the fall of that government in the summer of 1885. In 1886 the old Liberal party was run on the rocks and went to pieces. Lord Derby became a Liberal Unionist, and took an active part in the general management of that party, leading it in the House of Lords till 1891, when Lord Hartington became Duke of Devonshire. In 1892 he presided over the Labour Commission, but his health never recovered an attack of influenza which he had in 1891, and he died at Knowsley on 21 April 1893.

He served as President of the first day of the 1881 Co-operative Congress. Ώ]

During a great part of Lord Derby's life he was deflected from his natural course by the accident of his position as the son of the leading Conservative statesman of the day. From first to last he was at heart a moderate Liberal. After making allowance, however, for this deflecting agency, it must be admitted that in the highest quality of the statesman, “ aptness to be right,” he was surpassed by none of his contemporaries, or — if by anybody — by Sir George Cornewall Lewis alone. He would have been more at home in a state of things which did not demand from its leading statesman great popular power he had none of those "isms" and "prisms of fancy" which stood in such good stead. Template:Wikisource author


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Political career

In March 1848 he unsuccessfully contested the borough of Lancaster, and then made a long tour in the West Indies, Canada and the United States. During his absence he was elected member for King's Lynn, which he represented till October 1869, when he succeeded to the peerage. He took his place, as a matter of course, among the Conservatives, and delivered his maiden speech in May 1850 on the sugar duties. Just before, he had made a very brief tour in Jamaica and South America. In 1852 he went to India, and while travelling in that country he was appointed under-secretary for foreign affairs in his father's first administration.

From the outset of his career he was known to be more politically sympathetic to the Liberals rather than the Conservatives, and in 1855 Lord Palmerston offered him the post of Secretary of State for the Colonies. He was much tempted by the proposal, and hurried down to Knowsley to consult his father, who called out when he entered the room, "Halo, Stanley! what brings you here? — Has Dizzy cut his throat, or are you going to be married?" When the object of his sudden appearance had been explained, the Conservative chief received the courteous suggestion of the prime minister with anything but favour, and the offer was declined. In his father's second administration Lord Stanley held, at first, the office of Secretary of State for the Colonies (1858), but became President of the Board of Control on the resignation of Lord Ellenborough. He had the charge of the India Bill of 1858 in the House of Commons , became the first Secretary of State for India, and left behind him in the India Office an excellent reputation as a man of business.

After the revolution in Greece and the disappearance of King Otto , the people most earnestly desired to have Queen Victoria's second son, Prince Alfred, for their king. He declined the honour, and they then took up the idea that the next best thing they could do would be to elect some great and wealthy English noble, not concealing the hope that although they might have to offer him a Civil List he would decline to receive it. Lord Stanley was the prime favourite as an occupant of this bed of thorns, and it has been said that he was actually offered the crown. That, however, is not true the offer was never formally made.

After the fall of the Russell government in 1866 he became Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs in his father's third administration. He compared his conduct in that great post to that of a man floating down a river and fending off from his vessel, as well as he could, the various obstacles it encountered. He thought that that should be the normal attitude of an English foreign minister, and probably in the circumstances of the years 1866-1868 it was the right one. He arranged the collective guarantee of the neutrality of Luxembourg in 1867, negotiated a convention about the Alabama, which, however, was not ratified, and most wisely refused to take any part in the Cretan troubles. In 1874 he again became Foreign Secretary in Disraeli's government. He acquiesced in the purchase of the Suez Canal shares, a measure then considered dangerous by many people, but ultimately most successful he accepted the Andrassy Note, but declined to accede to the Berlin Memorandum. Derby's conduct during the Eastern Crisis was mysterious to many of his contemporaries and for some time thereafter. The 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica could still state that Derby's "part in the later phases of the Russo-Turkish struggle has never been fully explained, for with equal wisdom and generosity he declined to gratify public curiosity at the cost of some of his colleagues. A later generation will know better than his contemporaries what were the precise developments of policy which obliged him to resign. He kept himself ready to explain in the House of Lords the course he had taken if those whom he had left challenged him to do so, but from that course they consistently refrained."

The fact of the matter was that Derby's hope for peace with Russia led him (and his wife) to share Cabinet secrets with the Russian ambassador, Pyotr Shuvalov, in hopes of averting war with Russia. [ 2 ] Robert Blake commented that "Derby surely must be the only Foreign Secretary in British history to reveal the innermost secrets of the Cabinet to the ambassador of a foreign power in order to frustrate the presumed intentions of his own Prime Minister." Derby resigned in January 1878 when the Cabinet resolved to send the British fleet through the Dardanelles, but when that action soon proved unnecessary, Derby was allowed to withdraw his resignation. However, he resigned again and finally in the same year when the Cabinet agreed to call up the reserve.

By October 1879 it was clear enough that he had thrown in his lot with the Liberal Party, but it was not till March 1880 that he publicly announced this change of allegiance. He did not at first take office in the second Gladstone government, but became Colonial Secretary in December 1882, holding this position till the fall of that government in the summer of 1885. In 1886 the old Liberal party was run on the rocks and went to pieces. Lord Derby became a Liberal Unionist, and took an active part in the general management of that party, leading it in the House of Lords till 1891, when Lord Hartington became Duke of Devonshire. In 1892 he presided over the Labour Commission.

He served as President of the first day of the 1881 Co-operative Congress. [ 3 ]


The Diaries Of Edward Henry Stanley, 15th Earl Of Derby (1826-93) Between 1878 And 1893

Download or read book entitled The Diaries of Edward Henry Stanley, 15th Earl of Derby (1826-93) Between 1878 and 1893 written by Edward Henry Stanley Earl of Derby and published by Leopards Head PressLtd online. This book was released on 29 June 2021 with total page 922 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Lord Derby (1826-93) was at the centre of things. His father, the 14th Earl, had been thrice prime minister, as well as the longest serving English party leader of modern times. The 15th Earl was the only minister to serve in the cabinets of both Gladstone and Disraeli. As a diarist, he was probably the fullest and most informative "fly on the wall" of the great world in the second half of the nineteenth century. The diaries began in 1849, and continued with only slight breaks to his death in 1893. Most pages were nearly full, and filled shrewdly, fairly, and intelligently. The diaries should convince us that there never was such a thing as a harmonious cabinet. The most important man in Lancashire, and a landowner on a great scale, Derby records the minutiae of a vanished way of life, that of the great Victorian nobleman dedicated to public service, as faithfully as he does momentous arguments in the cabinet. These diaries may provide a quarry for the social as much as for the political history of the upper classes and an intelligent commentary on the people and events of aristocratic parliamentary government in its final phase. Conversation has tended to be the missing link in history. These diaries take us a useful step along the road from "who wrote what?" to "who said what?".


Edward Henry Stanley, 15th Earl of Derby, British statesman, mid-late 19th century.Artist: W Holl

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He was born to Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, who led the Conservative Party from 1846–1868 and served as Prime Minister three times, and Emma Caroline Bootle-Wilbraham, daughter of Edward Bootle-Wilbraham, 1st Baron Skelmersdale, and was the older brother of Frederick Arthur Stanley, 16th Earl of Derby. The Stanleys were one of the richest landowning families in England. Lord Stanley, as he was styled before acceding to the earldom, was educated at Eton, Rugby and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he took a first in classics and became a member of the society known as the Cambridge Apostles. [1]

In March 1848 he unsuccessfully contested the borough of Lancaster, and then made a long tour in the West Indies, Canada and the United States. During his absence he was elected member for King's Lynn, which he represented till October 1869, when he succeeded to the peerage. He took his place, as a matter of course, among the Conservatives, and delivered his maiden speech in May 1850 on the sugar duties. Just before, he had made a very brief tour in Jamaica and South America. In 1852 he went to India, and while travelling in that country he was appointed under-secretary for foreign affairs in his father's first administration. On 11 March 1853, he was commissioned a captain in the 3rd Royal Lancashire Militia. [2]

From the outset of his career he was known to be more politically sympathetic to the Liberals rather than the Conservatives, and in 1855 Lord Palmerston offered him the post of Secretary of State for the Colonies. He was much tempted by the proposal, and hurried down to Knowsley to consult his father, who called out when he entered the room, "Halo, Stanley! what brings you here?—Has Dizzy cut his throat, or are you going to be married?" When the object of his sudden appearance had been explained, the Conservative chief received the courteous suggestion of the prime minister with anything but favour, and the offer was declined. On 13 May 1856, he was appointed to the Royal Commission on the purchase of commissions in the British army. [3] In his father's second administration Lord Stanley held, at first, the office of Secretary of State for the Colonies (1858), but became President of the Board of Control on the resignation of Lord Ellenborough. He had the charge of the India Bill of 1858 in the House of Commons, became the first Secretary of State for India, and left behind him in the India Office an excellent reputation as a man of business.

After the revolution in Greece and the disappearance of King Otto, the people most earnestly desired to have Queen Victoria's second son, Prince Alfred, for their king. He declined the honour, and they then took up the idea that the next best thing they could do would be to elect some great and wealthy English noble, not concealing the hope that although they might have to offer him a Civil List he would decline to receive it. Lord Stanley was the prime favourite as an occupant of this bed of thorns, and it has been said that he was actually offered the crown. That, however, is not true the offer was never formally made.

Foreign minister

After the fall of the Russell government in 1866 he became Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs in his father's third administration. He compared his conduct in that great post to that of a man floating down a river and fending off from his vessel, as well as he could, the various obstacles it encountered. He thought that that should be the normal attitude of an English foreign minister, and probably in the circumstances of the years 1866–1868 it was the right one. He enunciated the policy of Splendid isolation in 1866 :

it is the duty of the Government of this country, placed as it is with regard to geographical position, to keep itself upon terms of goodwill with all surrounding nations, but not to entangle itself with any single or monopolizing alliance with any one of them above all to endeavor not to interfere needlessly and vexatiously with the internal affairs of any foreign country." [4] [5]

He arranged the collective guarantee of the neutrality of Luxembourg in 1867, negotiated a convention about the Alabama, which, however, was not ratified, and most wisely refused to take any part in the troubles in Crete. In 1874 he again became Foreign Secretary in Disraeli's government. He acquiesced in the purchase of the Suez Canal shares, a measure then considered dangerous by many people, but ultimately most successful he accepted the Andrassy Note, but declined to accede to the Berlin Memorandum. Derby's conduct during the Eastern Crisis was mysterious to many of his contemporaries and for some time thereafter. The 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica could still state that Derby's "part in the later phases of the Russo-Turkish struggle has never been fully explained, for with equal wisdom and generosity he declined to gratify public curiosity at the cost of some of his colleagues. A later generation will know better than his contemporaries what were the precise developments of policy which obliged him to resign. He kept himself ready to explain in the House of Lords the course he had taken if those whom he had left challenged him to do so, but from that course they consistently refrained."

The fact of the matter was that Derby's hope for peace with Russia led him (and his wife) to share Cabinet secrets with the Russian ambassador, Pyotr Shuvalov, in hopes of averting war with Russia. [6] Robert Blake commented that "Derby surely must be the only Foreign Secretary in British history to reveal the innermost secrets of the Cabinet to the ambassador of a foreign power in order to frustrate the presumed intentions of his own Prime Minister." Derby resigned in January 1878 when the Cabinet resolved to send the British fleet through the Dardanelles, but when that action soon proved unnecessary, Derby was allowed to withdraw his resignation. However, he resigned again and finally in the same year when the Cabinet agreed to call up the reserve.

By October 1879 it was clear enough that he had thrown in his lot with the Liberal Party, but it was not till March 1880 that he publicly announced this change of allegiance. He did not at first take office in the second Gladstone government, but became Colonial Secretary in December 1882, holding this position till the fall of that government in the summer of 1885. In 1886 the old Liberal party was run on the rocks and went to pieces. Lord Derby became a Liberal Unionist, and took an active part in the general management of that party, leading it in the House of Lords till 1891, when Lord Hartington became Duke of Devonshire. In 1892 he presided over the Labour Commission.

He served as President of the first day of the 1881 Co-operative Congress. [7]


Edward Stanley, 15:e earl av Derby

Edward Henry Stanley, 1851-1869 Lord Stanley, därefter 15:e earl av Derby, född 21 juni 1826, död 21 april 1893, var en brittisk politiker. Han var son till Edward Smith-Stanley, 14:e earl av Derby och äldre bror till Frederick Stanley, 16:e earl av Derby.

Stanley kom efter studier i Rugby och Cambridge 1848 in i underhuset, varifrån han vid faderns död 1869 inträdde i överhuset. Han tillhörde de konservativa protektionisterna. År 1852 var han utrikesundersekreterare i sin faders ministär, och avböjde 1855 att ingå som kolonialminister i lord Palmertons moderata whigregering, men mottog denna post i faderns andra ministär 1858, för att därefter bli minister för Indien (den siste med titeln President of the Board of control och den förste som Secretary of State for India). På denna post kom Derby att spela den ledande rollen vid Indiens övergång från Ostindiska kompaniet till brittiska kronans styre.

I faderns tredje ministär blev Derby utrikesminister och visade sig nu som alltid vara en varm anhängare av en fredlig utrikespolitik. Samma post och samma inställning intog Derby i Benjamin Disraelis andra ministär. Då Disraeli förde en enligt Derby alltför vågsam politik, lämnade han i mars 1878 sin post i regeringen. Denne konflikt med de konservativa i utrikespolitiska frågor ledde Derby över till det liberala partiet, vars program han i många frågor länge stått nära. 1882-85 var han kolonialminister i William Ewart Gladstones andra ministär. Då Gladstone blev anhängare av irländsk självstyrelse, anslöt sig Derby till de liberala unionisterna och fungerade som deras ledare i överhuset 1886-91.

Derby gifte sig 1870 med lady Mary Catherine Sackville-West (1824-1900), dotter till George John Sackville-West, 5:e earl De la Warre och änka efter James Gascoyne-Cecil, 2:e markis av Salisbury (1791-1868). Hon var i sitt första äktenskap styvmor till den senare premiärministern Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3:e markis av Salisbury.


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